Advertisement

Fruit Crops: Plum

Chapter

Abstract

Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) is reported as pest of plums in Chile (Gonzalez et al. 1996). In Porterville, Tulare County, California, Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuw.) has been reported from a total of 65 food plants, including plum (Meyerdirk and Newell 1979). The Comstock mealybug P. comstocki was also observed in the Odessa region of the Crimea (USSR) on plum (Romanchenko and Bel’skaya 1981). In Apsheronsk Peninsula, Azerbaijan SSR, USSR, Phenacoccus mespili Sign. was shown to be a pest of many fruit crops, including cherry plum. In Chile, plums were found infested with P. viburni and its associated ant, Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) (Curkovic et al. 1995). Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) was found in a plum orchard in Auckland, New Zealand, in November (Richmond and Cowley 1998). Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana is a subterranean pest of plums and other crops, primarily in the Sacramento Valley of California. Significantly, more R. kondonis were found 15.2–45.7 cm deep in the soil (averaging 8.3/1240 cm3 soil core sample) compared with depths of 0–15.2 cm (averaging 2.2/sample) (Godfrey and Pickel 1998) (Fig. 31.1).Mealybugs are injurious to plum in Chile,California,Crimea,New Zealand etc. In Chile, a new approach to minimize risks is suggested through control programmes against Pseudococcus. viburni in plums starting at the post harvest season, followed in the next early spring season with the chitin inhibitor buprofezin. In California, exotic parasioids Allotropa burrelli Mues., A. convexifrons Mues. and Pseudaphycus malinus Gah. were found to be successfully established on Ps. Comstocki. In Apsheronskiy Peninsula in the Azerbaijan SSR, USSR, Phenacoccus mespili Sign was shown to be a pest of peach, apricot, quince, cherry-plum, cherry, bird-cherry, apple, pear and ash. The most important natural enemy was the encyrtid Pseudaphycus phenacocci Yasnosh which parasitized about 73.8 % of the pest population in late August and September. In the Odessa region of the Crimea (USSR), for control of the Comstock mealybug Ps. comstocki on plum, Pseudaphycus was introduced and infestation declined rapidly, parasitism being 98 %.

Keywords

Pest Population Soil Core Sample Postharvest Treatment Important Natural Enemy Tulare County 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Curkovic ST, Barria PG, Gonzalez RH (1995) Preliminary observations on insects and mites on grapes, pears, plums and persimmons detected with corrugated band traps [Spanish]. Acta Entomol Chilena 19:143–154Google Scholar
  2. Godfrey LD, Pickel C (1998) Seasonal dynamics and management schemes for a subterranean mealybug, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, pest of alfalfa. Southwest Entomol 23(4):343–350Google Scholar
  3. Gonzalez RH (1991) Mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), a new pest of Japanese plums in Chile [Spanish]. Rev Frutic 12(1):3–7Google Scholar
  4. Gonzalez RH, Volosky FC (2004) Mealybugs and fruit moth: quarantine problems affecting fresh fruit exports [Spanish]. Rev Frutic 25(2):41–62Google Scholar
  5. Gonzalez RH, Curkovic ST, Barria PG (1995) Postharvest control of the grape and plum mealybug Pseudococcus affinis (Maskell) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), with diazinon, methidathion and profenofos. Agric Tecnica (Santiago) 55(2):95–98Google Scholar
  6. Gonzalez RH, Curkovic ST, Barria PG (1996) Evaluation of the efficacy of insecticides against mealybugs in plums and grapes (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). [Spanish]. Rev Frutic 17(2):45–57Google Scholar
  7. Gonzalez RH, Jorge Poblete G, Gerardo Barria P (2001) The tree fruit mealybug in Chile, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Revista Fruticola 22(1):17–26Google Scholar
  8. Ibadova SI (1985) The apple mealybug Phenacoccus mespili Sign and its natural enemies in the Apsheronskiy Peninsula [Russian]. Izv Akad Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR Biol Nauk 1:32–36Google Scholar
  9. Meyerdirk DE, Newell IM (1979) Importation, colonization, and establishment of natural enemies on the Comstock mealybug in California. J Econ Entomol 72(1):70–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Richmond JE, Cowley JM (1998) Pineapple mealybug in New Zealand? Orchardist 71(7):71Google Scholar
  11. Romanchenko AA, Bel’skaya NM (1981) The Comstock mealybug in the Odess region [Russian]. Zashchita Rastenii 4:41Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations