Advertisement

Natural Enemies of Mealybugs

  • A. N. Shylesha
  • M. Mani
Chapter

Abstract

Mealybugs are found attacked by various natural enemies in nature. The outbreak of mealybugs was observed in many instances with the application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which might have disturbed the activity of natural enemies particularly parasitoids and predators. This clearly indicates the importance of natural enemies in the regulatory role of the mealybug population. In fact, there is a very rich natural complex on arboreal mealybugs, but there is a poor natural enemy complex, particularly natural predators or parasites on root mealybugs. Withdrawal of insecticides results in the reappearance of natural enemies, thereby regulating the mealybug population. The natural enemies of the pests can be divided into three categories depending on how they feed on the pests. They are predators, parasitoids or pathogens.

Keywords

Natural Enemy Parasitic Wasp Entomopathogenic Nematode Nymphal Stage Nymphal Instar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alves VS, Moino Junior A, Santa-Cecilia LVC, Rohde C, da Silva MAT (2009) Tests for the control of coffee root mealybug Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) with Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida, Heterorhabditidae) [Portuguese]. Rev Bras Entomol 53(1):139–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andalo V, Moino Junior A, Santa-Cecilia LVC, Souza GC (2004) Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana with chemical pesticides for the control of the coffee root mealybug Dysmicoccus texensis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) [Portuguese]. Neotrop Entomol 33(4):463–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banu JG, Suruliveru T, Amutha M, Gapalakrishnan N (2010) Susceptibility of cotton mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus to entomopathogenic fungi. Ann Plant Prot Sci 18(1):247–248Google Scholar
  4. Blumberg D (1997) Parasitoid encapsulation as a defense mechanism in the Coccoidea (Homoptera) and its importance in biological control. Biol Cont 8:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blumberg D, Franco JC, Suma P, Russo A (2001) Parasitoid encapsulation in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as affected by the host-parasitoid association and superparasitism. Boll Zool Agr Bachic SerII 33(3):385–395Google Scholar
  6. Blumberg D, van Driesche RG (2001) Encapsulation rates of three encyrtid parasitoids by three mealybug species (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) found commonly as pests in commercial greenhouses. Biol Cont 22:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Calatayud PA, Polania MA, Seligmann CD, Bellotti AC (2002) Influence of water-stressed cassava on Phenacoccus herreni and three associated parasitoids. Entomol Exp Appl 102:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chong JH, Oetting RD (2007) Specificity of Anagyrus sp nov nr. sinope and Leptomastix dactylopii for six mealybug species. Biocontrol 52:289–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clancy DW (1944) Biology of Allotropa burrelli, a gregarious parasite of Pseudococcus comctocki. J Agric Res 69:159–167Google Scholar
  10. Devasahayam S, Koya KMA (2000) Evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi against root mealybug infesting black pepper. In: Abstracts, Entomocongress 2000, Association for Advancement of Entomology, Trivandrum, 5–8 Nov 2000, pp 33–34Google Scholar
  11. Devasahayam S, Koya KMA, Anandaraj M, Thomas T, Preethi N (2009) Distribution and bio-ecology of root mealybugs associated with black pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) in Karnataka and Kerala, India. Entomon 34:147–154Google Scholar
  12. Dinesh AS, Venkatesha MV, Ramakrishna S (2010) Development, life history characteristic and behaviour of mealybug predator Spalgis epeus (Westwood) (Lepidoptra: Lycaenidae) on Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). J Pest Sci 83:339–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gillani WA, Copland M, Raja S (2009) Studies on the feeding preference of brown lacewing (Sympherobius fallax Navas) larvae for different stages of long-tailed mealy bug (Pseudococcus longispinus) (Targioni and Tozzetti). Pak Entomol 31(1):1–4Google Scholar
  14. Gilliat RC (1939) The life history of Allotropa utilis Mues., a hymenopterous parasite of the orchard mealybug Nova Scotia. Can Entomol 1:160–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Giordanengo P, Nenon JP (1990) Melanization and encapsulation of eggs and larvae of Epidinocarsis lopezi by its host Phenacoccus manihoti – effects of superparasitism and egglaying patterns. Entomol Exp Appl 56:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herren HR, Neuenschwander P (1991) Biological control of cassava pests in Africa. Ann Rev Entomol 36:257–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Le Ru B (1986) Epizootiology of the entomophthoraceous fungus Neozygites fumosa in a population of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom, Pseudococcidae). Entomophaga 31:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (1989) Life cycle, host stage suitability and pesticide susceptibility of the grape mealybug parasitoid, Allotropa japonica sp n. J Biol Control 3:7–9Google Scholar
  19. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (1990) Predation of Mallada boninensis on Ferrisia virgata, Planococcus citri and P lilacinus. J Biol Control 4:122–123Google Scholar
  20. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (1991) Breeding of Blepyrus insularis (Hym., Encyrtidae) on Ferrisia virgata (Hemip., Pseudococcidae). Entomon 16:275–277Google Scholar
  21. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (1995) Influence of different stages of oriental mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) on the development, progeny production and sex ratio of the parasitoid, Tetracnemoidea indica Ayyar. J Insect Sci 8(2):192–193Google Scholar
  22. Mani M, Thontadaraya TS (1987) Biological studies on the grape mealybug predator Scymnus coccivora (Ayyar). J Biol Control 1:89–92Google Scholar
  23. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A, Sivaraju C (1991) A wonderful predator. Lambert Academic Publishing, Deutschland, 310 pGoogle Scholar
  24. Monga D, Kumhar KC, Kumar R (2010) Record of Fusarium pallidoroseum (Cooke) Sacc. on cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. J Biol Control 24(4):366–368Google Scholar
  25. Moore D (1988) Agents used for biological control of mealybugs (Pseudococcidae). Biocontrol News Inf 9:209–225Google Scholar
  26. Murray DAH (1978) Population studies of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso), and its natural enemies on passion-fruit in south-eastern Queensland. Qld J Agric Anim Sci 35(2):139–142Google Scholar
  27. Noyes JS, Hayat M (1994) Oriental mealybug parasitoids of the Anagyrini (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). CAB International, Oxon, 554 pGoogle Scholar
  28. Rodriguez I, de Martinez de los M, Sanchez L, Rodriguez MG (1998) Field comparison of the effectiveness of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain HC1 for the control of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on coffee [Spanish]. Rev Prot Veg 13(3):195–198Google Scholar
  29. Sagarra LA, Peterkin DD, Vincent C, Stewart RK (2000) Immune response of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), to oviposition of the parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). J Ins Physiol 46:647–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Saranya C (2008) Evaluation of biocontrol agents against Citrus mealybug Plannococcus citri. M.Sc thesis submitted to Bharathidasn University, TiruchirapalliGoogle Scholar
  31. Smitha MS, Mathew MP (2010) Management of root mealybugs, Geococcus spp. In banana cv Nendran. Pest Manag Hortic Ecosyst 16(2):108–119Google Scholar
  32. Stokwe NF, Malan AP (2010) Potential use of entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of mealybugs on apples and pears. SA Fruit J 9(3):38–39, 42Google Scholar
  33. Stuart RJ, Polavarapu S, Lewis EE, Gaugler R (1997) Differential susceptibility of Dysmicoccus vaccinii (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae). J Econ Entomol 90:925–932CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insect ResourcesBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations