Life Cycle Assessment of Algal Biofuels
First- and second-generation biofuels are widely recognized as unsustainable in the long run due to associated challenges and are incapable to completely displace petroleum-based transportation fuels. Biofuel from algae (third generation of biofuels) is an emerging area of research and offers several potential benefits over first and second generation of biofuels. To achieve the goals of sustainable development needed today requires moving beyond the general compliance to specified norms for environmental protection and a cradle-to-grave-approach-based analysis of products and processes. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an analytical tool to assess the environmental, social, and economic performance of alternative products and processes throughout its life cycle. Since fossil fuels have created environmental concerns, any alterative should perform better on environmental concerns than fossil fuels before it is promoted. Therefore, LCA of algal biofuels is imperative in order to assess its suitability over fossil fuels.
KeywordsLife Cycle Assessment Algal Biomass Water Footprint Life Cycle Assessment Study Open Pond
One of the authors (Dipesh Kumar) is thankful to UGC for providing Junior Research Fellowship (JRF).
- Bruton T, Lyons H, Lerat Y, Stanley M, Rasmussen (2009) A review of the potential of marine algae as a source of biofuel in Ireland. Sustainable Energy Ireland, DublinGoogle Scholar
- Clark J, Deswarte F (2008) Introduction to chemicals from biomass (Stevens CV, ed). Wiley series in renewable resources. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- Collet P, Spinelli D, Lardon L, Hélias A, Steyer JP, Bernard O (2013) Life-cycle assessment of microalgal-based biofuels. Biofuels Algae 287–312Google Scholar
- Davis J, Haglund C (1999) Life cycle inventory (LCI) of fertiliser production. Fertiliser products used in Sweden and Western Europe. SIK-Report No. 654. Masters thesis, Chalmers University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
- Grobbelaar J (2004) In: Richmond A (ed) Handbook of microalgal culture: biotechnology and applied phycology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 97–115Google Scholar
- Gudin C, Therpenier C (1986) Bioconversion of solar energy into organic chemicals by microalgae. Adv Biotechnol Process 6:73–110Google Scholar
- Handler R, Canter C, Kalnes T, Lupton F, Kholiqov O, Shonnard D, Blowers P (2012) Evaluation of environmental impacts from microalgae cultivation in open-air raceway ponds: analysis of the prior literature and investigation of wide variance in predicted impacts. Algal Res 1(1):83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kongshaug G (1998) Energy consumption and green house gas emission in fertilizer production. IFA- technical conference, MarrakechGoogle Scholar
- Mohn FH (1988) Harvesting of microalgal biomass. In: Borowitzka MA, Borowitzka LJ (eds) Micro-algal biotechnology. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 395–414Google Scholar
- O’Neil G, Culler A, Williams J, Burlow N, Gilbert G, Carmichael C, Nelson R, SwarthoutR RC (2015) Production of jet fuel range hydrocarbons as a coproduct of algal biodiesel by butenolysis of long-chain alkenones. Energy Fuel 29:922–930Google Scholar
- Rahmes TF, Kinder JD, Henry TM, Crenfeldt G, LeDuc GF, Zombanakis GP, et al (2009). Sustainable bio-derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene (Bio-SPK) jet fuel flights and engine tests program results. Report No. AIAA, 7002Google Scholar
- UNEP (2009) Guidelines for social life cycle assessment of products. UNEP, ParisGoogle Scholar