Amputation of the Lower Extremity

  • Shyam Kumar Saraf


Chronic leg ulcers are defined as those that show no tendency to heal after 3 months of appropriate treatment or are still not fully healed at 12 months [1]. Various treatment modalities have been suggested for the management of nonhealing ulcers. The amputation is done as a last resort, when all other methods of treatment have exhausted or when it is felt that amputated limb will provide a better functional result as compared to limb with persistent chronic nonhealing ulcers. The amputation rate in diabetics can be reduced with good care of the foot. The last decade saw a marked decline in the lower extremity amputation in the Medicare population in the USA [2].


Pressure Ulcer Necrotizing Fasciitis Amputation Rate Lower Extremity Amputation Diabetic Foot Ulcer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Kahle B, Hermanns HJ, Gallenkemper G. Evidence-based treatment of chronic Leg ulcers. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011;108:231–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belatti DA, Phisitkul P. Declines in lower extremity amputation in the US Medicare population 2000–2010. Foot Ankle Int. 2013;34:923–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Izumi Y, Satterfield K, Lee S, Harkless LB. Risk of reamputation in diabetic patients stratified by limb and level of amputation: a 10-year observation. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:566–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yusmido YA, Hisamud-Din N, Mazlan M. Elective proximal lower limb amputation in spinal cord injury patients with chronic pressure ulcers. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2014;50(5):557–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moses SE, Klein BE. The prevalence and incidence of lower extremity amputation in a diabetic population. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:610–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wagner Jr FW. A classification and treatment program for diabetic, neuropathic and dysvascular foot problems. Instr Course Lect. 1979;28:143.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Edo AE, Edo GO, Ezeani IU. Risk factors, ulcer grade and management outcome of diabetic foot ulcers in a tropical tertiary care hospital. Niger Med J. 2013;54:59–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boffeli TJ, Thompson JC. Partial foot amputations for salvage of the diabetic lower extremity. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2014;31:103–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Monteiro-Soares M, Martins-Mendes D, Vaz-Carneiro A, Sampaio S, Dinis-Ribeiro M. Classification systems for lower extremity amputation prediction in subjects with active diabetic foot ulcer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2014;30(7):610–22. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2535.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Roach JJ, Mcfarlane DS. Midfoot amputations: applications of pioneer procedures in a new age. Contemp Orthop. 1989;18:557.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OrthopaedicsInstitute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations