Development of Cyclotrons for Proton and Particle Therapy

  • Emma Pearson
  • Willem Kleeven
  • Vincent Nuttens
  • Simon Zaremba
  • Jarno Van de Walle
  • Eric Forton
  • Robin Choo
  • Yves Jongen


All particle therapy systems are modular systems built with smaller subsystems. The various modules are (1) the beam production system, (2) the beam transport system, and (3) the beam delivery system as shown in Fig. 2.1.


Proton Beam Proton Therapy Particle Therapy Isochronous Cyclotron Radio Frequency System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Livingston MS, Lawrence EO. The production of high speed light ions without the use of high voltages. Phys Rev. 1932;40:19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Veksler V. Concerning some new methods of acceleration of relativistic particles. Phys Rev. 1945;9:153.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McMillan EM. The synchrotron – a proposed high energy particle accelerator. Phys Rev. 1945;68:143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Umezawa M. Indianapolis. HITACHI proton beam therapy system. 2013. Particle Beam Therapy Symposium, 55th AAPM Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, Indiana.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thomas LH. The paths of ions in the cyclotron. Phys Rev. 1938;54:580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Heyn FA, Tat KK. Operation of a radial sector fixed frequency proton cyclotron. Rev Sci Instrum. 1958;29:662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Christofilos N. 2736799 USA, 10 Mar 1950.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Courant ED, Livingston MS, Snyder HS. The strong-focusing synchrotron – a new high energy accelerator. Phys Rev. 1952;88:1190–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kerst DW, Terwilliger KM, Jones LW, Symon KR. A fixed field – alternating gradient accelerator with spirally ridged poles MURA-DWK/KMT/LWJ/KRS-3. Midwest Universities Research Assoc. s.l.: Unpublished. 1954.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dunn PD, Mullett LB, Pickavance TG, Walkinshaw W, Wilkins JJ, editors. Accelerator Studies at A.E.R.E. Harwell, Symposium on high-energy accelerators and pion physics, vol. 1. Geneva: Edouard Regenstreiff; 1956. p. 11–23.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hiramoto K, Coutrakon G. Synchrotron technology for particle therapy system. 2010. PTCOG 49 Educational Workshop, Chiba, Japan.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bohm D, Foldy LL. Theory of the synchrocyclotron. Phys Rev. 1947;72:649–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bohm D, Foldy LL. Theory of synchrotron. Phys Rev. 1946;70:249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wilson RR. Radiological use of fast protons. Radiology. 1946;47(5):487–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. LRL Accelerators. Berkeley, California 2010.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McMillan EM. Synchrocyclotron. s.l.: patent US 2615129A. 1947.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    The Svedberg Laboratory Historical Notes. [Online]
  18. 18.
    Published work from Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory. [Online]
  19. 19.
    Wilson RR. A brief history of the Harvard University Cyclotrons. [Online] 2003.
  20. 20.
    Optivus Proton Therapy Inc. History of Proton Therapy, California 2008.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mills F, et al. Technical assessment of the Loma Linda University Proton Therapy Accelerator. Batavia: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory; 1989.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jongen Y, Laisne A, Lannoye G. France N. Preliminary design of a reduced cost proton therapy facility using a compact, high field isochronous cyclotron. European Particle Accelerator Conference. Nice, France 1990.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jongen Y. Review on cyclotrons for cancer therapy. Lanzhou: International Conference on Cyclotrons and their Applications. 2010.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schillo M, et al. Compact superconducting 250 MeV proton cyclotron for the PSI PROSCAN proton therapy project. In: Cyclotrons and their applications. East Lansing: S.n.; 2001.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Antaya T. High-field superconducting synchrocyclotron. PCT/US2007/001628. 19 Jan 2007.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    World’s First MEVION S250 Proton Therapy Treatment Delivered at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. [Online] Mevion Medical Systems Inc., 19 Dec 2013. [Cited: 06 27, 2014.]
  27. 27.
    Kleeven W. The IBA superconducting synchrocyclotron project S2C2. Vancouver: Cyclotrons. 2013.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ion Beam Applications. [Online]
  29. 29.
    Kumata Y. Particle Therapy Technologies. 55th AAPM annual meeting, Indianapolis, Indiana 2013. p. 1.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rocken H. Commissioning and Testing of Varian’s 250 MeV Superconducting ProBeam® Cyclotrons for Proton Therapy. Villigen: European Cyclotron Progress Meeting. 2012.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tsutsui H, Hashimoto A, Mikami Y, Mitsubori H, Mitsumoto T, Touchi Y, Ueda T, Uno K, Watazawa K, Yajima S, Yoshida J, Yumoto K, Sumitomo Heavy Industries. Design Study of a Superconducting AVF Cyclotron for Proton Therapy. Ltd. Vancouver: Cyclotrons. 2013.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Radovinsky A, Minervini JV, Miller CE, Bromberg L, Michael P, Maggiore M. Superconducting magnets for ultra light and magnetically shielded, compact cyclotrons for medical, scientific, and security applications. IEEE Tran Appl Supercond. 2014;24:3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Radovinsky AL, Minervini JV, Michael PC, Bromberg L. Variable energy acceleration in a single iron-free. [Online] September 2013.
  34. 34.
    Mevion Medical Systems. [Online]
  35. 35.
    Ueda H. Conceptual design of next generation HTS cyclotron. Osaka: IEEE Trans Appl Supercond. 2013;23:13.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jongen Y. Cyclotrons from protons to Carbon for Hadron Therapy. Pasadena: PAC; 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emma Pearson
    • 1
  • Willem Kleeven
    • 1
  • Vincent Nuttens
    • 1
  • Simon Zaremba
    • 1
  • Jarno Van de Walle
    • 1
  • Eric Forton
    • 1
  • Robin Choo
    • 1
  • Yves Jongen
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical Accelerator Solutions: R&D DepartmentIBALouvain-la-NeuveBelgium

Personalised recommendations