Recent Advances in Feedstocks and Enzyme-Immobilised Technology for Effective Transesterification of Lipids into Biodiesel
There are several technological and economic challenges that need to be addressed to make biodiesel production profitable. Among the technological obstacles in enzyme-catalysed transesterification process for biodiesel production, the selection of feedstock and robust biocatalyst are the critical factors for developing a cost-effective bioprocess. Feedstocks, mainly second and third generations, have been used recently to economise biodiesel production. Nanotechnology has revolutionised the enzyme immobilisation technology by providing versatile nanomaterials. Biocompatible nanomaterial is emerging as a novel immobilisation support for lipase enzyme to advance biodiesel production. Nanomaterials possess excellent properties such as higher surface area-to-volume ratios, lower mass transfer resistance, and quick separation from the reaction mixture using magnetic field. Utilising the cheap renewable feedstock such as waste oil and microalgae oil, nanomaterial-immobilised enzyme can be reused thus economising the process of enzymatic transesterification for biodiesel production. The chapter provides an insight of recent progresses in improving immobilised lipase technology, focusing on innovation in feedstock and nanomaterial processing such as synthesis, functionalisation, and characterisation with regard to biodiesel production. This chapter concludes that synergies between nanotechnology and industrial biotechnology will become an integral part of sustainable biodiesel production.
KeywordsEnzyme Immobilisation Bioenergy Production Oleaginous Yeast Oleaginous Microorganism High Enzyme Loading
The authors acknowledge the Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, Deakin University, Australia, for providing the necessary facilities. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
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