Fungal Diseases of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) and Their Integrated Management (IDM)

  • C. P. Khare
  • Sushma Nema
  • J. N. Srivastava
  • V. K. Yadav
  • N. D. Sharma


Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) is an important vegetable crop grown mainly for its tender green fruits in India. The green fruits are rich in vitamins A and C and minerals like Ca, Mg, and Fe. In home consumption, India tops the world (Dhankhar and Mishra 2004). It is a multipurpose crop due to its various uses. Okra seeds are also good sources of protein and vegetable oil (Yadav and Dhankhar 2001). Okra crop is grown throughout the year and is susceptible to many fungal pathogens. Fungal diseases are a major constraint next to the yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) in all areas of the country okra producing. It is suffered by fungal diseases which are belonging to 23 genera and 31 species of fungal pathogens (Table 8.1).


Powdery Mildew Rhizoctonia Solani Stem Canker Alternaria Alternata Trichoderma Viride 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abdel-Rahim AM (1988) Post-harvest fungal diseases of some vegetables in Kuwait. Arab J Plant Prot 6(2):83–87Google Scholar
  2. Abou-Heilah AN (1985) Postharvest fungal diseases of some vegetables in the two main markets of Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). J Univ Kuwait Sci 12(1):103–111Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal S, Singh T (2002) Plant latices as biopesticide against seed-borne fungi of okra. J Mycol Plant Pathol 32(1):135Google Scholar
  4. Agrawal S, Singh T (2000) Effect of extra- and intra-embryonal infection of Macrophomina phaseolina on disease transmission in okra seeds. J Mycol Plant Pathol 30(3):355–358Google Scholar
  5. Al-Kassim MY (1996) Seed-borne fungi of some vegetables in Saudi Arabia and their chemical control. Arab Gulf J Sci Res 14(3):705–715Google Scholar
  6. Anam MK, Fakir GA, Khalequzzaman KM, Hoque MM, Rahim A (2002) Effect of seed treatment on the incidence of seed-borne diseases of okra. Pak J Plant Pathol 1(1):1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anitha K, Tripathi NN (2000) Integrated management of seedling diseases of okra caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun and Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. Indian J Plant Prot 28(2):127–131Google Scholar
  8. Anitha K, Tripathi NN (2001a) Laboratory screening of fungal and bacterial antagonists against Rhizoctonia solani (Khun) and Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) inciting seedling diseases of okra. Indian J Plant Prot 29(1/2):146–148Google Scholar
  9. Anitha K, Tripathi NN (2001b) Screening of fungicides against seedling mortality of okra caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium aphanidermatum. Plant Dis Res 16(1):52–56Google Scholar
  10. Broek RVD, Iacovino GD, Paradela AL, Galli MA (2002) Alternative control of Erisiphe cichocearum on Okra crop. Ecossistema 27(1/2):23–26Google Scholar
  11. Chaitali, Singh L, Singh S, Goswami BK (2003) Effect of cakes with Trichoderma viride for the management of disease-complex caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola and Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Ann Plant Prot Sci 11(1):178–180Google Scholar
  12. Dhankhar BS, Mishra JP (2004) Objectives of okra breeding. J New Seeds 6(2/3):195–209Google Scholar
  13. Dharam S, Maheshwari VK, Gupta A (2001) Fungicidal control of Cercospora leaf spot in seed crop of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.]. Seed Res 29(2):254–256Google Scholar
  14. Diaz FA (1999) Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) powdery mildew in Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia 17(1):44–45Google Scholar
  15. Dubey SC, Jha AK (1999) Influence of dates of sowing and environmental factors on collar rot of okra. Indian Phytopathol 52(3):291–293Google Scholar
  16. Ehteshamul H, Ghaffar S (1993) Use of rhizobia in the control of root rot diseases of sunflower, okra, soybean and mungbean. J Phytopathol 138(2):157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Emechebe AM, Leakey CLA, Banage WB (1972) Verticillium wilt of cacao in Uganda: the relationship between Verticillium dahliae and cacao roots. Ann Appl Biol 70(2):157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Esentepe M, Karcilioglu A, Sezgin E (1972) The first report of Verticillium wilt on sesame and okra. J Turkish Phytopathol 1(3):127–129Google Scholar
  19. Esuruoso OF, Ogundiran SA, Chheda HR, Fatokun DO (1975) Seedborne fungi and some fungal diseases of okra in Nigeria. Plant Dis Rep 59(8):660–663Google Scholar
  20. Fugro PA (1999) A new disease of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in India. J Mycol Plant Pathol 29(2):264Google Scholar
  21. Fugro PA, Jadhav NV (2003) Stem canker of okra in Konkan region of Maharashtra. J Mycol Plant Pathol 33(2):288–289Google Scholar
  22. Ghaffar A (1988) Soilborne diseases research centre of Bangladesh. Final research report, 1st January–30th June, pp 102–110Google Scholar
  23. Ghaffar A (1993) Rhizobia as biocontrol organisms. BNF Agric Bull 12(2):6Google Scholar
  24. Gurjar KL, Singh SD, Rawal P (2004) Management of seed borne pathogens of okra with bio-agents. Plant Dis Res 19(1):44–46Google Scholar
  25. Jadhav NV, Fugro PA, Sawant GG (2000) Effect of media, pH, carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth and sporulation of Fusarium chlamydosporum causing stem canker of Okra. Indian J Environ Toxicol 10(2):81–83Google Scholar
  26. Jamadar MM, Ashok S, Jahagirdar S (2001) Studies on seed mycoflora and nematodes and their effect on germination and vigour index of colour graded okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Crop Res Hisar 22(3):479–484Google Scholar
  27. Jha AK, Dubey SC (2000) Occurrence of collar rot of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in the plateau region of Bihar. J Res Birsa Agric Univ 12(1):67–72Google Scholar
  28. Jha AK, Dubey SC, Jha DK (2000) Evaluation of different leaf extracts and oil cakes against Macrophomina phaseolina causing collar rot of okra. J Res Birsa Agric Univ 12(2):225–228Google Scholar
  29. Jhooty JS, Sokhi SS, Bains HS, Rewal HS (1977) Evaluation of germplasm of Okra against powdery mildew and Cercospora blight. News Letter No.2 Vegetable and Hort. for Humid Tropics pp 30–32Google Scholar
  30. Johnson AW, Burton GW, Sumner DR, Handoo Z (1997) Coastal Bermudagrass rotation and fallow for management of nematodes and soilborne fungi on vegetable crops. J Nematol USA 29(4):710–716Google Scholar
  31. Kaswate NS, Shinde SS, Rathor RR (2003) Effect of biological agents against different isolates of Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler in vitro. Ann Plant Physiol 17(2):167–168Google Scholar
  32. Kumar CSKV, Rao AS (1976) A report of leaf spot diseases on some vegetable, fodder and ornamental plants. Curr Sci 45(8):309–310Google Scholar
  33. Mashooda B, Rai VR, Lokesh S (2003) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on seed-borne fungal pathogens in okra. Indian Phytopathol 56(2):156–158Google Scholar
  34. Mathivanan N, Srinivasan K, Chelliah S (2000) Biological control of soil-borne diseases of cotton, eggplant, okra and sunflower by Trichoderma viride. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 107(3):235–244Google Scholar
  35. Muhsin TMA, Zubaidy SR, Ali ET (2001) Effect of garlic bulb extract on the growth and enzymatic activities of rhizosphere and rhizoplane fungi. Mycopathologia 152(3):143–146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Naik KS, Nagaraja A (2000) Chemical control of powdery mildew of okra. Indian J Plant Prot 28(1):41–42Google Scholar
  37. Ndzoumba B, Conca G, Portapuglia A (1990) Observations on the mycoflora of seeds produced in Gabon. FAO Plant Prot Bull 38(4):203–212Google Scholar
  38. Neeraja G, Vijaya M, Chiranjeevi C, Gautham B (2004) Screening of okra hybrids against pest and diseases. Indian J Plant Prot 32(1):129–131Google Scholar
  39. Omer MEH (1972) Chemical control of powdery mildews of cucumber and okra in the Sudan. Wad Medani Sudan Exp Agric 8(3):265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Patel NN, Vala DG (2004) Evaluation of phyto extracts against the growth of Fusarium solani. Plant Dis Res 19(2):204Google Scholar
  41. Patel NN, Gohel VP, Vala DG (2004) Control of okra wilt with chemical seed treatment. Plant Dis Res 19(1):47–48Google Scholar
  42. Prabhu AS, Phatak KD, Singh RP (1971) Powdery mildew of ‘bhindi’ (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Delhi State. Indian J Hortic 28(4):310–312Google Scholar
  43. Ragupathy N, Thiruvudainambi S, Thamburaj S (1998) Chemical control of powdery mildew disease of bhendi. South Indian Hortic 46(1/2):102–103Google Scholar
  44. Rahman MA, Ali M, Mian IH, Begum MM, Kalimuddin M (2000) Pesticidal control of Pseudocercospora leaf spot and shoot and fruit borer of okra seed crop. Bangladesh J Plant Pathol 16(1/2):31–34Google Scholar
  45. Ribeiro RLD, Robbs CF, Akiba F, Kimura O, Sudo S (1971) Arquivos da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Inst Biol 1(1):9–13, UFRRJ, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  46. Shahid A, Khan A, Chauhan SS (2001) Studies on seed-borne nature of Macrophomina phaseolina in okra. Ann Plant Prot Sci 9(1):152–154Google Scholar
  47. Shahnaz D, Perveen F, Atif D (2005) Effect of different strains of Rhizobium spp. in the control of root infecting fungi and growth of crop plants. Int J Biol Biotechnol 2(2):415–418Google Scholar
  48. Siddiqui IA, Ehteshamul-Haque S, Zaki MJ, Ghaffar A (2000) Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobia as biocontrol agent of root-infecting fungi in okra. Acta Agrobot 53(1):13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Singh A, Malhotra SK (1994) Host range studies of Rhizoctonia solani causing web blight in winged bean. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika 9(2):113–116Google Scholar
  50. Singh NB, Sharma HK, Srivastava KJ (1998) Chemical control of powdery mildew in okra seed crop. News Letter National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation. 18(4): 1–4Google Scholar
  51. Asha S, Rai JP, Singh HK (2001) Seed mycoflora of Okra and its control by fungicides. Progress Hortic 33(1):84–89Google Scholar
  52. Sohi HS, Sokhi SS (1972) Disease of bhendi (Okra) and their control. The Lal Baugh 14(3):1–6Google Scholar
  53. Sohi HS, Sokhi SS (1974) Behavior of okra varieties to damping of powdery mildew and cercospora blight. Indian Phytopath 27:90–91Google Scholar
  54. Souza VLD, CafeFilho AC (2003) Resistance to Leveillula taurica in the genus Capsicum. Plant Pathol 52(5):613–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Soylu S, Yigit A (2002) Feeding of mycophagous ladybird, Psyllobora bisoctonotata (Muls.), on powdery mildew infested plants. OILB/SROP Bull 25(10):183–186Google Scholar
  56. Yadav SK, Dhankhar BS (2001) Correlation studies between various field parameters and seed quality traits in okra cv. Varsha uphar. Seed Res 29:84–88Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. P. Khare
    • 1
  • Sushma Nema
    • 2
  • J. N. Srivastava
    • 3
  • V. K. Yadav
    • 4
  • N. D. Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant pathologyIndira Gandhi Agricultural UniversityRaipurIndia
  2. 2.Division of Plant pathologyJawaharlal Krishi Vishwa VidyalayaJabalpurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Plant PathologyBihar Agricultural University, SabourBhagalpurIndia
  4. 4.JNKVVCollege of AgricultureTikamgarhIndia

Personalised recommendations