Role of Defensive Antiviral Proteins from Higher Plants in the Management of Viral Diseases

  • L. P. Awasthi
  • S. P. Singh
  • H. N. Verma


Plants, animals, and other microorganisms are provided, in their genetic makeup, with a certain range of antimicrobial compounds. With respect to viruses, a few plants show resistance to their infection. This resistance, in many cases, has been associated with the protective chemicals within the plant cells which are known for their antifungal or antimicrobial property and reported to be proteinaceous in nature. Many higher plants have developed a variety of defense systems to combat pathogen attack which is essential for their survival. Some of these plants possess endogenous proteins that act as virus inhibitors. They are generally basic proteins with molecular weight ranging from 24 to 32 kDa and effective against a wide range of plant viruses. The viral inhibitors are well studied in Phytolacca americana, Dianthus caryophyllus, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cuscuta reflexa, Mirabilis jalapa, Bougainvillea spectabilis, and Celosia cristata. These viral inhibitors are most effective when mixed with the virus inoculum or when they are applied one day before or shortly after mechanical inoculation.


Mosaic Virus Leaf Extract Tobacco Mosaic Virus Cucumber Mosaic Virus Virus Inhibitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abdel-Mogib M, Albar HA, Batterjee SM (2002) Chemistry of the Genus Plectranthus. Molecules 7:271–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdul-Alim MA (1971) A chemical study of the leaves of Clerodendron inerme. Planta Med 19:318–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal RR, Dutt SS (1936) Chemical examination of Punarnava or Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. II. Isolation of an alkaloid punarnavine. Chem Abstr 30:3585Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad K, Hossain A (1968) Isolation, synthesis and biological action of hypoxanthine-9-L-arabinofuranoside. J Agric Biol Sci 11:41Google Scholar
  5. Akihisa T, Matsubara Y, Ghosh P, Thakur S, Tamura T, Matsumoto T (1989) Sterols of some Clerodendrum species (Verbenaceae) occurrence of the 24-α and 24-β epimers of 24-ethylsterols lacking a Δ25-bond. Steroids 53:625–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allam EK, Morsy AA, Ali MDH, Abo El–Ghar AI (1979) Inhibitors from some higher plants inhibiting TMV CMV infection. Egypt J Phytopath 10:9–14Google Scholar
  7. Atta-Ur-Rehman, Begum S, Saied S, Choudhary MI, Farzana A (1997) A steroidal glycoside from Clerodendron inerme. Phytochemistry 45:1721–1722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Awasthi LP, Yadav CP (2009) Induction of systemic resistance in tomato against viral diseases through botanicals. In: Indian Phytopathological Society, 5th international conference, plant pathology in the globalized era, Division of Plant Pathology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India. 10–13 November, 2009. Abstract No.401 (S-08)Google Scholar
  9. Awasthi LP, Singh PK (2004) Management of mosaic disease of Amorphophallus campanulatus through leaf extract of Clerodendrum aculeatum. Indian Phytopathol 57(3):345Google Scholar
  10. Awasthi LP, Singh S (2006) Management of papaya ringspot virus in nursery by phytochemicals. Ind J Virol 17(2):138Google Scholar
  11. Awasthi LP, Singh S (2008) Eco-friendly management of viral diseases of papaya (Carica papaya L.). Ind Phytopathol 61(3):378Google Scholar
  12. Awasthi LP, Singh S (2009) Management of ring spot disease of papaya through plant products. Ind Phytopathol 62(3):369–375Google Scholar
  13. Awasthi LP, Kumar P (2003a) Prevention of infection and multiplication of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in muskmelon treated with Boerhaavia diffusa. Ind Phytopathol 56:362Google Scholar
  14. Awasthi LP, Kumar P (2003b) Protection of some cucurbitaceous crops against natural infection of virus through Boerhaavia diffusa. Ind Phytopathol 56:317Google Scholar
  15. Awasthi LP, Mukerjee K (1980) Protection of potato virus X infection by plant extracts. Biol Plant 22:205–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Awasthi LP, Rizvi SMA (1998) Prevention of infection by a vector borne virus of Tomato by Boerhaavia diffusa glycoprotein. In: National conference on integrated pest management. 23–35, February, 1998. Sultan Qaboos University. Sultanate of Oman (Abstract)Google Scholar
  17. Awasthi LP, Rizvi SMA (1999) Effect of Boerhaavia diffusa glycoprotein on the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus by Bemisia tabaci Gen. In: National symposium on vectors of plant diseases. 11–13 November, 1999. N.D.U.A.&T Kumarganj, Faizabad, p. 56Google Scholar
  18. Awasthi LP, Kluge S, Verma HN (1987) Characteristics of an antiviral agent induced by Boerhaavia diffusa glycoprotein in host plants. Ind J Virol 3:156–169Google Scholar
  19. Awasthi LP, Chowdhury B, Verma HN (1984) Prevention of plant virus disease by Boerhaavia diffusa inhibitor. Ind J Trop Plant Dis 2:41–44Google Scholar
  20. Awasthi LP, Kluge S, Verma HN (1989) Characteristics of antiviral agents induced by B. diffusa glycoprotein in host plants. Ind J Virol 3:156–169Google Scholar
  21. Awasthi LP, Pathak SP, Gautam NC, Verma HN (1985) Control of virus diseases of vegetable crops by a glycoprotein isolated from B. diffusa. Ind J Plant Pathol 3:311–327Google Scholar
  22. Barakat A (1988) Studies on plant virus inhibitors from certain species of the Sinai flora. Microbiol Lett 38:123–130Google Scholar
  23. Baranwal VK, Tumer NE, Kapoor HC (2002) Depurination of ribosomal RNA and inhibition of viral RNA translation by an antiviral protein of Celosia cristata. Ind J Exp Biol 40:1195–1197Google Scholar
  24. Basu NK, Lal SB, Sharma SN (1947) Investigations on Indian medicinal plants. Q J Pharm Pharmacol 20:38–42Google Scholar
  25. Batista O, Simoes MF, Duarte A, Valderia ML, Delatorre MC, Rodriguez B (1995) An antimicrobial abietane from the root of Plectranthus hereroensis. Photochemistry 38:167–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bawden FC (1954) Inhibitors and plant viruses. Adv Virus Res 2:31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Benda GTA (1956) The effect of New Zealand Spinach juice on the infection of cowpeas by tobacco ringspot virus. Virology 2(4):438–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bharathi M (1999) Effect of plant extract and chemical inhibitors on cucumber mosaic virus of brinjal. J Mycol Plant Pathol 29:57–60, Contact: Bharathi, M.; Sarathi Cooperative Housing Society, Barabanda Road, Erragadda, 8-4-371/B/86, Plot No.66, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, 500 018, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  29. Bolger LM, Rees HH, Ghisalberti EL, Goad LJ, Goodwin TW (1970) Isolation of two new sterols from Clerodendrum campbellii. Tetrahedron Lett 11:3043–3046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chopra GL (1969) Angiosperms. Systematics and life cycle. S. Nagin & Co., Jalandhar, pp 361–365Google Scholar
  31. CSIR (1988) The wealth of India: raw materials, vol VII B. CSIR, New Delhi, p 174Google Scholar
  32. Duggar BM, Armstrong JK (1925) The effect of treating the virus of tobacco mosaic with juices of various plants. Ann Mo Bot Gard 12:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. El–Dougdoug KA (1997) Antiphytoviral activity of Khella and Black Commun on infectivity and chemical structure of To MV. In: Proceedings of the 9th conference of microbiology. Cairo, 25–27 March, 1997, pp 203–221Google Scholar
  34. Fantes KH, O’Neill CF (1964) Some similarities between a viral inhibitor of plant origin and chick interferon. Nature London 203:1048–1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fischer H, Nienhaus F (1973) Virus inhibitors in pepper Capsicum annuum. Phys Z 78:25–41Google Scholar
  36. Flores EW, Walkyria BC, Maneghini M (1967) An inhibitory activity of leaf extract of Abutilon striatum Dicks on the infectivity of Abutilon mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus. Arc Inst Biol SPaulo 34:83–89Google Scholar
  37. Francki RIB (1964) Inhibition of cucumber mosaic virus infectivity by leaf extracts. Virology 24:193–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ganapathy T, Narayanaswamy P (1990) Effect of plant products on the incidence of major diseases of groundnut. Int Arachis Newslett 7:20–21Google Scholar
  39. Gao LM, Wei XM, He YQ (2003) Studies on chemical constituents in leafs of Clerodendron fragrans. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 28:948–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Goswami P, Kotoky J, Chen ZN, Lu Y (1996) A sterol glycoside from leaves of Clerodendron colebrookianum. Phytochemistry 41:279–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Habuka N, Akiyama K, Tsuge H, Miayamo M, Matsumoto T, Noma M (1990) Expression and secretion of Mirabilis antiviral protein in Escherichia coli and its inhibition of in vitro eukaryotic and prokaryotic protein synthesis. J Biol Chem 265:10988–10992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hansen AJ (1989) Antiviral chemicals for plant disease control. Plant Sci 8:45–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jain GK, Khanna NM (1989) Punarnavoside: A new antifibrinolytic agent from Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. Indian J Chem 28(B):163–166Google Scholar
  44. Jayashree K, Pan KB, Sabitha D (1999) Effect of plant extracts and derivatives, butter milk and virus inhibitory chemicals on Pumpkin yellow vein mosaic virus transmission. Indian Phytopathol 52(4):357–361Google Scholar
  45. Joshi KC, Singh P, Mehra A (1979) Chemical investigation of the roots of different Clerodendron species. Planta Med 37:64–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kanchanapoom T, Chumsri P, Kasai R, Otsuka H, Yamasaki K (2005) A new iridoid diglycoside from Clerodendrum chinense. J Asian Nat Prod Res 7:269–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kanchanapoom T, Kasaia R, Chumsric P, Hiragad Y, Yamasaki K (2001) Megastigmane and iridoid glucosides from Clerodendrum inerme. Phytochemistry 58:333–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kassanis B, Kleczkowski A (1948) The isolation and some properties of a virus-inhibiting protein from Phytolacca esculenta; J. Gen Microbiol 2:143–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kempiak G, Schuster G, Awasthi LP, Kluge S (1991) Attempts to reduce damage caused by oat sterile dwarf virus in oats using virazole, 2,4-dioxohexahydrotriazine, Boerhaavia inhibitor and alkane-monosulfonate. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 26:219Google Scholar
  50. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1956) Indian medicinal plants, vol III, 2nd edn. Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, pp 2045–2048Google Scholar
  51. Kumar D, Verma HN, Narendra T, Tewari KK (1997) Cloning and characterisation of a gene encoding an antiviral protein from Clerodendrum aculeatum L. Plant Mol Biol 33:745–751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kumar P, Awasthi LP (2008) Prevention of infection and spread of Cucumber mosaic virus disease in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) through plant products. Indian J Virol 19(1):107Google Scholar
  53. Kumar P, Awasthi LP (2003a) Prevention of Cucumber mosaic virus infection and spread in cucumber plants, treated with Boerhaavia diffusa inhibitor. Indian Phytopathol 56(2):318Google Scholar
  54. Kumar P, Awasthi LP (2003b) Management of infection and spread of bottle guard mosaic virus disease in bottle gourd through botanicals. Indian Phytopathol 56(2):361Google Scholar
  55. Kuntz JE, Walker JC (1947) Virus inhibition by extracts of spinach. Phytopathology 37(8):561–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee JH, Lee JY, Kang HS, Jeong CH, Moon H, Whang WK, Kim CJ, Sim SS (2006) The effect of acteoside on histamine release and arachidonic acid release in RBL-2H3 mast cells. Arch Pharm Res 29:508–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Loebenstein G, Ross AF (1963) An extractable agent, induced in uninfected tissues, by localized virus infection, that interfere with infection by tobacco mosaic virus. Virology 22:507–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Louis Vimi, Balakrishan S (1996) Effect of application of selected medicinal plant extracts on the incidence of pumpkin mosaic virus. Ind Phytopathol 49(4):373–377Google Scholar
  59. Matthews REF (1991) Plant virology, 3rd edn. Academic Press INC, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
  60. McKeen CO (1956) The inhibitory activity of extract from Capsicum frutescens on plant virus infections. Can J Bot 34:891–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meyer G, De Dan, Allan Z, (1995) Antiviral proteins in higher plants. pp. 119–130. Library of congress cataloying in public data Boca Raton Ann. Arab. London. TokyoGoogle Scholar
  62. Mishra AN, Tiwari HP (1971) Constituents of the roots of Boerhaavia diffusa. Phytochemistry 10:3318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Okuyama T, Takemi K, Saka H, (1978) Sic Rep Fac Agr Ibaraki Univ, 26: 49 (In Japanees)Google Scholar
  64. Othman BA, El–Dougdoug K, Abo El-Nasr M (1991) Effect of garlic bubbilies extraction on tomato mosaic virus. Ann Agric Sci 36:423–430Google Scholar
  65. Pandey R, Verma RK, Singh SC, Gupta MM (2003) 4α-methyl-24β-ethyl- 5α-cholesta-14,25-dien-3β-ol and 24β-ethylcholesta-5, 9(11), 22e-trien-3β-ol, sterols from Clerodendrum inerme. Phytochemistry 63:415–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pinto WJ, Nes WR (1985) 24β-ethylsterols, n-alkanes and n-alkanols of Clerodendrum splendens. Phytochemistry 24:1095–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ragetli HWJ (1957) Behavior and nature of a virus inhibitor occurring in D. caryophyllus. Tijdschr Planteziekten 63:245–344Google Scholar
  68. Ragetli HWJ (1975) The mode of action of natural plant virus inhibitors. Curr Adv Plant Sci 19:321–334Google Scholar
  69. Ragetli HWJ, Weintraub M (1962) Purification and characteristics of a virus inhibitor from Dianthus caryophyllus L. Virology 18:241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rao DG, Raychaudhuri SP (1965) Further studies on the inhibition of ring spot strain of potato virus X by plant extracts, culture filtrates of Trichothecium roseum and chemicals. Indian J Microbiol 5:9–12Google Scholar
  71. Rendle AB (1925) The classification of flowering plants, vol 2, Dicotyledons. Campridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  72. Sangar RBS, Dhingra MK (1982) Potato virus inhibitor from Neem leaf extract. J Indian Potato Assoc 9:143–149Google Scholar
  73. Sharma SK, Singh VP (1979) The antifungal activity of some essential oils. Indian Drug Pharm Ind 14:3–6Google Scholar
  74. Shoman SA (2002) Role of salicylic acid in plant resistance to tobacco necrosis and tobacco mosaic viruses infection. Az J Microbiol 58:178–191Google Scholar
  75. Singh AK, Singh M, Singh AK (1988) Antiviral activity and physical proportion of the extract of Azadirachta indica. Indian J Virol 4:76–81Google Scholar
  76. Singh B, Sood RP, Singh V (1992) Chemical composition of Tagetes minuta L. oil from Himachal Pradesh (India). J Ess Oil Res 4:525–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Singh P, Singhi CL (1981) Chemical investigation of Clerodendron fragrans. J Indian Chem Soc 58:626–627Google Scholar
  78. Singh R, Prakash L (1983) Chemical examination of stems of Clerodendron inerme (L) Gaertn. (Verbenaceae). Pharmazie 38:565Google Scholar
  79. Singh S (2002) Studies on management of yellow mosaic disease of mungbean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) through botanicals. M.Sc. (Ag.) thesis, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.), pp. 1–100Google Scholar
  80. Singh S, Awasthi LP (2002) Prevention of infection and spread of Bean common mosaic virus disease of mungbean and urdbean through botanicals. Indian J Plant Pathol 11(1 & 2):63–65Google Scholar
  81. Singh S, Awasthi LP (2004) Prevention of infection and spread of mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) on urdbean (Vigna mungo) through Boerhaavia diffusa root extract. Indian J Plant Pathol 22(1&2):50–55Google Scholar
  82. Singh S, Awasthi LP (2008) Management of ring spot disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) through antiviral agents of plant origin along with milk protein. Indian J Virol 19(1):106–107Google Scholar
  83. Singh S, Awasthi LP, Khan MN (2005) Management of yellow mosaic disease of mungbean and urdbean through aqueous root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa. New Bot XXXII:55–62Google Scholar
  84. Singh S, Awasthi LP, Verma HN (2004) Prevention and control of yellow mosaic disease of mungbean by application of aqueous root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa. Indian Phytopathol 57(3):303–304Google Scholar
  85. Singh Sanjay, Awasthi LP (2009) Evaluation of medicinal plants against yellow mosaic disease of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.)]. In: National conference on herbal and traditional medicine. Department of Botany, Dapoli Urban Bank Senior Science College, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri (Maharastra), 6–7 February, 2009 (Abst. No. M-P.-18)Google Scholar
  86. Sinha NK, Pandey VB, Dasgupta B, Higuchi R, Kawasaki T (1982) Acteoside from the flowers of Clerodendron infortunatum. Indian J Chem 22B:97–98Google Scholar
  87. Sinha NK, Pandey VB, Shah AH, Dasgupta B (1980) Chemical constituents of the flowers of Clerodendron infortunatum. Indian J Pharm Sci 42:21Google Scholar
  88. Stevens WA, Spurdon C, Onyon LJ, Stirpe F (1981) Effect of inhibitors of protein synthesis from plants on tobacco mosaic virus infection. Experientia 37:28–29Google Scholar
  89. Surange SR, Pendse GS (1972) Pharmacognostic study of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa Willd. (punarnava). J Res India Med 7:1Google Scholar
  90. Surendran M, Shanmugam V, Rajagopalan B, Ramanian N (1999) Efficacy of botanicals on Brinjal mosaic virus. Plant Dis Res 14(1):63–66Google Scholar
  91. Takanami Y, Kuwata S, Ideda T, Kubo S (1990) Purification and characterization of the antiplant viral protein from Mirabilis Jalapa L. Ann Phytopath Soc Jpn 56:488–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Van Kammen A, Noordam D, Thung T (1961) The mechanism of inhibition of infection with tobacco mosaic virus by an inhibitor from carnation sap. Virology 14:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Varma JP (1973) Isolation and characterization of a virus inhibitor from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.wirsing) leaves. Indian Phytopathol 26:713–722Google Scholar
  94. Verma A, Singh RB (1994) Clerodendrum aculeatum a possible prophylactic agent against natural viral infection in mungbean. Ann Plant Prot Sci 2(2):60–63Google Scholar
  95. Verma A, Verma HN (1993) Management of viral disease of mungbean by Clerodendrum leaf extracts. Indian J Plant Pathol 11(1 & 2):63–65Google Scholar
  96. Verma HN (1982) Inhibitor of plant viruses from higher plants. In: Singh BP, Raychoudhury SP (eds) Current trends in plant virology. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi, pp 151–159Google Scholar
  97. Verma HN, Awasthi LP (1979a) Prevention of virus infection and multiplication by leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta and the properties of the virus inhibitor. New Bot 6:49–59Google Scholar
  98. Verma HN, Awasthi LP (1979b) Further studies on a mosaic virus of Gomphrena globosa. Phytopath Z 95:178–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Verma HN, Awasthi LP (1979c) Antiviral activity of Boerhaavia diffusa root extract and the physical properties of the virus inhibitor. Can J Bot 57:926–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Verma HN, Awasthi LP (1980) Occurrence of a highly antiviral agent in plants treated with Boerhaavia diffusa inhibitor. Can J Bot 58:2141–2144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Verma HN, Baranwal VK (1983) Antiviral activity and the physical properties of the leaf extract of Chenopodium ambrosoides L. Proc Indian Acad Sci (Plant Sci) 92:461–465Google Scholar
  102. Verma HN, Varsha (1995) Prevention of natural occurrence of tobacco leaf curl disease by primed Clerodendrum aculeatum leaf extracts. In: Verma JP, Verma A, Kumar D (eds) Detection of plant pathogens and their management. Angkor Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi, pp 202–206Google Scholar
  103. Verma HN, Awasthi LP, Mukerjee K (1979a) Prevention of virus infection and multiplication by extracts from medicinal plants. Phytopathol Z 96:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Verma HN, Awasthi LP, Mukerjee K (1979b) Induction of systemic resistance by antiviral plant extracts in non-hypersensitive hosts. Zeitschrift Pflanzenk Pflanzenschutz 86:735–740Google Scholar
  105. Verma HN, Awasthi LP, Saxena KC (1979c) Isolation of the virus inhibitor from the root extract of Boerhaavia diffusa inducing systemic resistance in plants. Can J Bot 57:1214–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Verma HN, Varsha, Srivastava S (1991) Antiviral agents from plants for control of viral diseases, Abstracts: international conference on virology in the tropics. Lucknow, India, p 250Google Scholar
  107. Verma HN, Awasthi LP, Kumar V, Chaudhary B, Rastogi P, Dwivedi SD (1980) Control of plant virus diseases by extract from higher plants. J Indian Bot Soc 59:30Google Scholar
  108. Verma HN, Chowdhury B, Rastogi P (1994) Antiviral activity in leaf extracts of different Clerodendrum species. Z Pflanzenk Pflanzenschuz 91(1):34–41Google Scholar
  109. Verma HN, Rastogi P, Prasad V, Srivastava A (1985) Possible control of natural virus infection on Vigna radiatus and Vigna mungo by plant extracts. Ind J Plant Pathol 3:21–24Google Scholar
  110. Verma HN, Srivastava S, Varsha, Kumar D (1996) Induction of systemic resistance in plants against viruses by a basic protein from Clerodendrum aculeatum leaves. Phytopathology 86:485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Verma HN, Varsha, Baranwal VK (1995) Agricultural role of endogenous antiviral substances of plant origin. In: Chessin M, De Borde D, Zipf A (eds) Antiviral proteins in higher plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 23–37Google Scholar
  112. Wyatt SD, Shepherd RJ (1969) Isolation and characterization of a virus inhibitor from Phytolacca americana. Phytopathology 69:1787–1794Google Scholar
  113. Yadav CP, Awasthi LP, Singh S (2009) Management of viral diseases of tomato through biopesticides: an ecofriendly approach. Indian J Virol 20(1):42Google Scholar
  114. Yang H, Hou A-J, Mei S-X, Sun H-D, Che C-T (2002) Constituents of Clerodendrum bungei. J Asian Nat Prod Res 4:165–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yang H, Jiang B, Hou A-J, Lin Z-W, Sun H-D (2000) Colebroside A, a new diglucoside of fatty acid ester of glycerin from Clerodendrum colebrookianum. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2:177–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yordanova A, Korparov NE, Stomenova, Starcheva M (1996) Antiphytoviral activity of 1–morpholinomethyl tetrahydro 2–Pyrimidinone (DDB). Plant Pathol 45:547–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zaidi ZB, Gupta VP, Samad A, Naqvi QA (1988) Inhibition of spinach mosaic virus by extracts of some medicinal plants. Curr Sci 57(3):151–152Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyN.D. University of Agriculture and TechnologyFaizabadIndia
  2. 2.Jaipur National UniversityJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations