Managing Perineural and Skull Base Involvement

  • Timothy A. Warren
  • Benedict Panizza
Part of the Head and Neck Cancer Clinics book series (HNCC)


Australia is recognized as the non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) capital of the world with approximately 300,000 cases diagnosed annually [1]. NMSC with perineural invasion (PNI) is an aggressive feature, which carries a worse prognosis through higher rates of locoregional recurrence and reduced survival [2–5]. NMSC with PNI has been shown to be associated with a disease-specific survival at 3 years of 64 %, compared to NMSC without PNI of 91 % [6].


Facial Nerve Skull Base Postoperative Radiotherapy Trigeminal Neuralgia Perineural Invasion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors wish to thank Dr Mitesh Gandhi for his input regarding radiological assessment and diagnosis.


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Copyright information

© Faruque Riffat, Carsten E. Palme, Michael Veness, Rehan Kazi, Raghav C. Dwivedi 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of MedicineUniversity of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, QIMR Berghofer Institute of Medical ResearchBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of MedicineUniversity of Queensland, Queensland Head and Neck Cancer Centre, Queensland Skull Base Unit, Princess Alexandra HospitalBrisbaneAustralia

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