Evaluation, Staging and Prognostication

  • Zubair Hasan
  • Carsten Palme
  • Faruque Riffat
Part of the Head and Neck Cancer Clinics book series (HNCC)


The majority of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), particularly those encountered in primary care settings, will be identified and are easily amenable to local therapy. The most common types of NMSC are basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and rarer tumours, including Merkel cell cancer (MCC) and sarcoma. Metastatic SCC is a rare entity (<5 % of cases); metastatic BCC even more so [1]. However, it is important to identify high-risk patients because of the significant morbidity and mortality experienced by this subgroup of patients. Optimal management of these patients requires multidisciplinary input. Considerable research has been conducted into early identification of such high-risk patients. The initial approach involves a thorough clinical assessment, including detailed history and evaluation of any relevant systemic disease, risk factors and comorbidities, followed by histological analysis. Advanced lesions will require more detailed investigations, including cross-sectional imaging in the form of computed tomography (CT) and or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The investigation should not only focus on the primary lesion but also on any potential regional and distant metastatic disease. One approach to the initial assessment of NMSC is shown in Fig. 3.1.


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Squamous Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma Perineural Invasion Actinic Keratosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Faruque Riffat, Carsten E. Palme, Michael Veness, Rehan Kazi, Raghav C. Dwivedi 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Westmead HospitalUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Otolaryngology Head and Neck SurgeryRoyal Prince Alfred Hospital and Westmead HospitalSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Sydney, Westmead HospitalSydneyAustralia

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