The last two decades have seen emerging economy firms entering into an unprecedented phase of internationalization with rising exports and outward FDI flows. The growing literature on internationalization behaviour of emerging economy firms including those from India, however, continued to be focused on national, sectoral and firm level analysis. There is little attention on subnational aspects of internationalization in India. However, the ability of firms to internationalize is significantly embedded in the intra-national spaces where they are located. This chapter reviews the growth of merchandised exports and OFDI from selected emerging economies, recognizes the growing policy focus of Indian states on exports, introduces key issues related to internationalization of Indian firms at the subnational level, and lays down the methodology of the analysis and structure of the book.