Biodegradable Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites

  • Leandro LudueñaEmail author
  • Juan Morán
  • Vera Alvarez
Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT, volume 75)


This chapter is a comprehensive source for biodegradable polymer/clay nanocomposite research. The work focuses on several strategies to obtain well-dispersed nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties. Different strategies for optimization of biodegradable polymer-clay nanocomposites were identified and treated herein. The two most important strategies are based on the chemical modification of the clay and on the processing conditions. The combination of these two factors greatly affects the resulting structure of the nano composite, being always the goal to obtain a good dispersion of the reinforcement within the polymeric matrix. Challenges in processing conditions have been analyzed and the prospective for future research has been addressed.


Nanocomposites Clay Performance Polymeric matrix Chemical modification Processing conditions 



Authors acknowledge CONICET, ANPCyT and UNMdP for the financial support of the present work.


  1. Alexandre M, Dubois P (2000) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials. Mater Sci Eng, R 28(1–2):1–63Google Scholar
  2. Ali SS, Tang X, Alavi S, Faubion J (2011) Structure and physical properties of starch/poly vinyl alcohol/sodium montmorillonite nanocomposite films. J Agric Food Chem 59(23):12384–12395Google Scholar
  3. Auer H, Hofmann H (1993) Pillared clays: characterization of acidity and catalytic properties and comparison with some zeolites. Appl Catal A 97(1):23–38Google Scholar
  4. Avérous L, Pollet E (2012) Environmental silicate nano-biocomposites. Green En Tech 50Google Scholar
  5. Bastioli C (2011) Handbook of biodegradable polymersGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker O, Varley RJ, Simon GP (2004) Thermal stability and water uptake of high performance epoxy layered silicate nanocomposites. Eur Polym J 40(1):187–195Google Scholar
  7. Bergaya F, Jaber M, Lambert JF (2012) Clays and clay minerals as layered nanofillers for (bio)polymers. Green En Tech 50:41–75Google Scholar
  8. Bocchini S, Battegazzore D, Frache A (2010) Poly (butylensuccinate co-adipate)-thermoplastic starch nanocomposite blends. Carbohydr Polym 82(3):802–808Google Scholar
  9. Bordes P, Pollet E, Averous L (2009) Nano-biocomposites: biodegradable polyester/nanoclay systems. Prog Polym Sci 34(2):125–155Google Scholar
  10. Bordes P, Pollet E, Bourbigot S, Avérous L (2008) Structure and properties of PHA/clay nano-biocomposites prepared by melt intercalation. Macromol Chem Phys 209(14):1473–1484Google Scholar
  11. Botana A, Mollo M, Eisenberg P, Torres Sanchez RM (2010) Effect of modified montmorillonite on biodegradable PHB nanocomposites. Appl Clay Sci 47(3–4):263–270Google Scholar
  12. Bruzaud S, Bourmaud A (2007) Thermal degradation and (nano)mechanical behavior of layered silicate reinforced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nanocomposites. Polym Test 26(5):652–659Google Scholar
  13. Cabedo L, Plackett D, Giménez E, Lagarón JM (2009) Studying the degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate—co—valerate during processing with clay-based nanofillers. J Appl Polym Sci 112(6):3669–3676Google Scholar
  14. Chang J-H, An YU (2002) Nanocomposites of polyurethane with various organoclays: thermomechanical properties, morphology, and gas permeability. J Polym Sci, Part B: Polym Phys 40(7):670–677Google Scholar
  15. Charreau H, Foresti ML, Vazquez A (2012) Nanocellulose patents trends: a comprehensive review on patents on cellulose nanocrystals, microfibrillated and bacterial cellulose. Recent Pat Nanotechnol 26:26–26Google Scholar
  16. Chaudhary DS (2008) Understanding amylose crystallinity in starch–clay nanocomposites. J Polym Sci, Part B: Polym Phys 46(10):979–987Google Scholar
  17. Chen B, Evans JRGG (2005) Thermoplastic starch-clay nanocomposites and their characteristics. Carbohydr Polym 61(4):455–463Google Scholar
  18. Chen GX, Hao GJ, Guo TY, Song MD, Zhang BH (2002) Structure and mechanical properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/clay nanocomposites. J Mater Sci Lett 21(20):1587–1589Google Scholar
  19. Chen GX, Hao GJ, Guo TY, Song MD, Zhang BH (2004) Crystallization kinetics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/clay nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 93(2):655–661Google Scholar
  20. Chen G-X, Yoon J-S (2005) Clay functionalization and organization for delamination of the silicate tactoids in poly(L-lactide) matrix. Macromol Rapid Commun 26(11):899–904Google Scholar
  21. Chiang C-L, Ma C-CM (2004) Synthesis, characterization, thermal properties and flame retardance of novel phenolic resin/silica nanocomposites. Polym Degrad Stab 83(2):207–214Google Scholar
  22. Chiou B-S, Wood D, Yee E, Imam SH, Glenn GM, Orts WJ (2007) Extruded starch–nanoclay nanocomposites: Effects of glycerol and nanoclay concentration. Polym Eng Sci 47(11):1898–1904Google Scholar
  23. Chung Y-L, Ansari S, Estevez L, Hayrapetyan S, Giannelis EP, Lai H-M (2010) Preparation and properties of biodegradable starch–clay nanocomposites. Carbohydr Polym 79(2):391–396Google Scholar
  24. Cyras VP, Manfredi LB, Ton-That M-T, Vázquez A (2008) Physical and mechanical properties of thermoplastic starch/montmorillonite nanocomposite films. Carbohydr Polym 73(1):55–63Google Scholar
  25. Czaja WK, Young DJ, Kawecki M, Brown RM (2006) The future prospects of microbial cellulose in biomedical applications. Biomacromolecules 8(1):1–12Google Scholar
  26. da Fonseca MG, Airoldi C (2000) New layered inorganic–organic nanocomposites containing n-propylmercapto copper phyllosilicates. J Mater Chem 10(6):1457–1463Google Scholar
  27. D’Amico DA, Manfredi LB, Cyras VP (2012) Relationship between thermal properties, morphology, and crystallinity of nanocomposites based on polyhydroxybutyrate. J Appl Polym Sci 123(1):200–208Google Scholar
  28. Dean K, Yu L, Wu DY (2007) Preparation and characterization of melt-extruded thermoplastic starch/clay nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 67(3–4):413–421Google Scholar
  29. Dean KM, Do MD, Petinakis E, Yu L (2008) Key interactions in biodegradable thermoplastic starch/poly(vinyl alcohol)/montmorillonite micro- and nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 68(6):1453–1462Google Scholar
  30. Dean KM, Pas SJ, Yu L, Ammala A, Hill AJ, Wu DY (2009) Formation of highly oriented biodegradable polybutylene succinate adipate nanocomposites: effects of cation structures on morphology, free volume, and properties. J Appl Polym Sci 113(6):3716–3724Google Scholar
  31. Di Y, Iannace S, Di Maio E, Nicolais L (2003) Nanocomposites by melt intercalation based on polycaprolactone and organoclay. J Polym Sci, Part B: Polym Phys 41(7):670–678Google Scholar
  32. Edwards G, Halley P, Kerven G, Martin D (2005) Thermal stability analysis of organo-silicates, using solid phase microextraction techniques. Thermochim Acta 429(1):13–18Google Scholar
  33. Eichhorn S, Dufresne A, Aranguren M, Marcovich N, Capadona J, Rowan S, Weder C, Thielemans W, Roman M, Renneckar S, Gindl W, Veigel S, Keckes J, Yano H, Abe K, Nogi M, Nakagaito A, Mangalam A, Simonsen J, Benight A, Bismarck A, Berglund L, Peijs T (2010) Review: current international research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites. J Mater Sci 45(1):1–33Google Scholar
  34. Feijoo JL, Cabedo L, Giménez E, Lagaron JM, Saura JJ (2005) Development of amorphous PLA-montmorillonite nanocomposites. J Mater Sci 40(7):1785–1788Google Scholar
  35. Gain O, Espuche E, Pollet E, Alexandre M, Dubois P (2005) Gas barrier properties of poly(ε-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites: influence of the morphology and polymer/clay interactions. J Polym Sci, Part B: Polym Phys 43(2):205–214Google Scholar
  36. Gilman JW, Jackson CL, Morgan AB, Harris R, Manias E, Giannelis EP, Wuthenow M, Hilton D, Phillips SH (2000) Flammability properties of polymer—Layered-Silicate Nanocomposites. Polypropylene and polystyrene nanocomposites. Chem Mater 12(7):1866–1873Google Scholar
  37. Gorrasi G, Tortora M, Vittoria V, Pollet E, Alexandre M, Dubois P (2004) Physical properties of poly(ε-caprolactone) layered silicate nanocomposites prepared by controlled grafting polymerization. J Polym Sci, Part B: Polym Phys 42(8):1466–1475Google Scholar
  38. Gorrasi G, Tortora M, Vittoria V, Pollet E, Lepoittevin B, Alexandre M, Dubois P (2003) Vapor barrier properties of polycaprolactone montmorillonite nanocomposites: effect of clay dispersion. Polymers 44(8):2271–2279Google Scholar
  39. Gross RA, Kalra B (2002) Biodegradable polymers for the environment. Science 297(5582):803–807Google Scholar
  40. Habibi Y, Lucia LA, Rojas OJ (2010) Cellulose nanocrystals: chemistry, self-assembly, and applications. Chem Rev 110(6):3479–3500Google Scholar
  41. He H, Ding Z, Zhu J, Yuan P, Xi Y, Yang D, Frost RL (2005) Thermal characterization of surfactant-modified montmorillonites. Clays Clay Miner 53(3):287–293Google Scholar
  42. He H, Duchet J, Galy J, Gérard J-F (2006) Influence of cationic surfactant removal on the thermal stability of organoclays. J Colloid Interface Sci 295(1):202–208Google Scholar
  43. Homminga D, Goderis B, Hoffman S, Reynaers H, Groeninckx G (2005) Influence of shear flow on the preparation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites. Polymers 46(23):9941–9954Google Scholar
  44. Hong SI, Lee JH, Bae HJ, Koo SY, Lee HS, Choi JH, Kim DH, Park S-H, Park HJ (2011) Effect of shear rate on structural, mechanical, and barrier properties of chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposite film. J Appl Polym Sci 119(5):2742–2749Google Scholar
  45. Hrobarikova J, Robert JL, Calberg C, Jérôme R, Grandjean J (2004) Solid-state NMR study of intercalated species in poly(ε-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites. Langmuir 20(22):9828–9833Google Scholar
  46. Hubbe MA, Rojas OJ, Lucia LA, Sain M (2008) Cellulosic nanocomposites: a review. Bioresources 3(3):929–980Google Scholar
  47. Hwang SY, Yoo ES, Im SS (2009) Effect of the urethane group on treated clay surfaces for high-performance poly(butylene succinate)/montmorillonite nanocomposites. Polym Degrad Stab 94(12):2163–2169Google Scholar
  48. Jaffar Al-Mulla EA (2011) Preparation of new polymer nanocomposites based on poly(lactic acid)/fatty nitrogen compounds modified clay by a solution casting process. Fibers Polym 12(4):444–450Google Scholar
  49. Jalal Uddin A, Araki J, Gotoh Y (2011) Toward “strong” green nanocomposites: polyvinyl alcohol reinforced with extremely oriented cellulose whiskers. Biomacromolecules 12(3):617–624Google Scholar
  50. Jimenez G, Ogata N, Kawai H, Ogihara T (1997) Structure and thermal/mechanical properties of poly (ε-caprolactone)-clay blend. J Appl Polym Sci 64(11):2211–2220Google Scholar
  51. Kampeerapappun P, Aht-ong D, Pentrakoon D, Srikulkit K (2007) Preparation of cassava starch/montmorillonite composite film. Carbohydr Polym 67(2):155–163Google Scholar
  52. Katsarava RD, Vygodskii YS (1992) Silylation in polymer chemistry. Russ Chem Rev 61(6):629–650Google Scholar
  53. Katti DR, Ghosh P, Schmidt S and Katti KS (2005) Mechanical properties of the sodium montmorillonite interlayer intercalated with amino acids. Biomacromolecules 6(6):3276–3282Google Scholar
  54. Kiliaris P, Papaspyrides CDD (2010) Polymer/layered silicate (clay) nanocomposites: an overview of flame retardancy. Prog Polym Sci 35(7):902–958Google Scholar
  55. Klemm D, Kramer F, Moritz S, Lindström T, Ankerfors M, Gray D, Dorris A (2011) Nanocelluloses: a new family of nature-based materials. Angew Chem Int Ed 50(24):5438–5466Google Scholar
  56. Kojima Y, Usuki A, Kawasumi M, Okada A, Fukushima Y, Kurauchi T, Kamigaito O (1993) Mechanical properties of nylon 6-clay hybrid. J Mater Res 8(05):1185–1189Google Scholar
  57. Kornmann X (2001) Synthesis of epoxy–clay nanocomposites. Influence of the nature of the curing agent on structure. Polymers 42(10):4493–4499Google Scholar
  58. Krikorian V, Pochan DJ (2003) Poly (L-lactic acid)/layered silicate nanocomposite : fabrication, characterization, and properties. Chem Mater 15(13):4317–4324Google Scholar
  59. Krishnamachari P, Zhang J, Lou J, Yan J, Uitenham L (2009) Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)/clay nanocomposites by melt intercalation: a study of morphological, thermal, and mechanical properties. Int J Polym Anal Charact 14(4):336–350Google Scholar
  60. Lagaly G (1981) Characterization of clays by organic compounds. Clay Miner 16(1):1–21Google Scholar
  61. Le Pluart L, Duchet J, Sautereau H, Gérard JF (2002) Surface modifications of montmorillonite for tailored interfaces in nanocomposites. J Adhes 78(7):645–662Google Scholar
  62. LeBaron P (1999) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: an overview. Appl Clay Sci 15(1–2):11–29Google Scholar
  63. Lee S, Cho W, Hahn P, Lee M, Lee Y, Kim K (2005) Microstructural changes of reference montmorillonites by cationic surfactants. Appl Clay Sci 30(3–4):174–180Google Scholar
  64. Lee SM, Tiwari D (2012) Organo and inorgano-organo-modified clays in the remediation of aqueous solutions: an overview. Appl Clay Sci 59–60:84–102Google Scholar
  65. Lee SY, Chen H, Hanna MA (2008) Preparation and characterization of tapioca starch–poly(lactic acid) nanocomposite foams by melt intercalation based on clay type. Ind Crops Prod 28(1):95–106Google Scholar
  66. Lee SY, Hanna MA (2009) Tapioca starch-poly(lactic acid)-Cloisite 30B nanocomposite foams. Polym Compos 30(5):665–672Google Scholar
  67. Lee S-Y, Hanna MA (2008) Preparation and characterization of tapioca starch-poly(lactic acid)-Cloisite NA+ nanocomposite foams. J Appl Polym Sci 110(4):2337–2344Google Scholar
  68. Leite IF, Soares APS, Carvalho LH, Raposo CMO, Malta OML, Silva SML (2009) Characterization of pristine and purified organobentonites. J Therm Anal Calorim 100(2):563–569Google Scholar
  69. Lepoittevin B, Pantoustier N, Alexandre M, Calberg C, Jerome R, Dubois P (2002a) Layered silicate/polyester nanohybrids by controlled ring-opening polymerization. Macromol Symp 183(1):95–102Google Scholar
  70. Lepoittevin B, Pantoustier N, Devalckenaere M, Alexandre M, Kubies D, Calberg C, Jérôme R, Dubois P (2002b) Poly(ε-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites by in-Situ intercalative polymerization catalyzed by dibutyltin dimethoxide. Macromolecules 35(22):8385–8390Google Scholar
  71. Leszczyńska A, Njuguna J, Pielichowski K, Banerjee JR (2007) Polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposites with improved thermal properties. Thermochim Acta 453(2):75–96Google Scholar
  72. Letoffe J-M, Putaux J-L, David L, Bourgeat-Lami E (2004) Aqueous dispersions of silane-functionalized laponite clay platelets. a first step toward the elaboration of water-based polymer/clay nanocomposites. Langmuir 20(5):1564–1571Google Scholar
  73. Liao L, Zhang C, Gong S (2007) Preparation of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites by microwave-assisted in situ ring-opening polymerization. Macromol Rapid Commun 28(10):1148–1154Google Scholar
  74. Lim ST, Hyun YH, Lee CH, Choi HJ (2003) Preparation and characterization of microbial biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/organoclay nanocomposite. J Mater Sci Lett 22(4):299–302Google Scholar
  75. Luduena L, Kenny J, Vazquez A, Alvarez V (2013) Effect of extrusion conditions and post-extrusion techniques on the morphology and thermal/mechanical properties of polycaprolactone/clay nanocomposites. J Compos Mater 48(17):2059–2070Google Scholar
  76. Ludueña LN, Va Alvarez, Vazquez A (2007) Processing and microstructure of PCL/clay nanocomposites. Mater Sci Eng, A 460–461:121–129Google Scholar
  77. Ludueña LN, Vazquez A, Kenny JM, Alvarez VA (2011a) The effect of processing technique on the performance of PCL/clay nanocomposite. In: Frontiers in polymer science, second international symposium, Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  78. Ludueña LNN, Kenny JMM, Vázquez A, Alvarez VA (2011b) Effect of clay organic modifier on the final performance of PCL/clay nanocomposites. Mater Sci Eng, A 529(0):215–223Google Scholar
  79. Maiti P, Batt CA, Giannelis EP (2007) New biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate/layered silicate nanocomposites. Biomacromolecules 8(11):3393–3400Google Scholar
  80. Majdzadeh-Ardakani K, Nazari B (2010) Improving the mechanical properties of thermoplastic starch/poly(vinyl alcohol)/clay nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 70(10):1557–1563Google Scholar
  81. Mandalia T, Bergaya F (2006) Organo clay mineral–melted polyolefin nanocomposites effect of surfactant/CEC ratio. J Phys Chem Solids 67(4):836–845Google Scholar
  82. Mathew AP, Dufresne A (2002) Plasticized waxy maize starch: effect of polyols and relative humidity on material properties. Biomacromolecules 3(5):1101–1108Google Scholar
  83. McLauchlin AR, Thomas NL (2009) Preparation and thermal characterisation of poly(lactic acid) nanocomposites prepared from organoclays based on an amphoteric surfactant. Polym Degrad Stab 94(5):868–872Google Scholar
  84. Messersmith PB, Giannelis EP (1993) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: in situ intercalative polymerization of e-caprolactane in layered silicates. Chem Mater 5(8):1064–1066Google Scholar
  85. Messersmith PB, Giannelis EP (1995) Synthesis and barrier properties of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-layered silicate nanocomposites. J Polym Sci, Part A: Polym Chem 33(7):1047–1057Google Scholar
  86. Mondragón M, Mancilla JE, Rodríguez-González FJ (2008) Nanocomposites from plasticized high-amylopectin, normal and high-amylose maize starches. Polym Eng Sci 48(7):1261–1267Google Scholar
  87. Mook Choi W, Wan Kim T, Ok Park O, Keun Chang Y, Woo Lee J (2003) Preparation and characterization of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate)-organoclay nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 90(2):525–529Google Scholar
  88. Nair LS, Laurencin CT (2007) Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials. Prog Polym Sci 32(8–9):762–798Google Scholar
  89. Noorani S, Simonsen J, Atre S (2007) Nano-enabled microtechnology: polysulfone nanocomposites incorporating cellulose nanocrystals. Cellulose 14(6):577–584Google Scholar
  90. Oguzlu H, Tihminlioglu F (2010) Preparation and barrier properties of chitosan-layered silicate nanocomposite films. Macromol Symp 298(1):91–98Google Scholar
  91. Ojijo V, Sinha Ray S (2013) Processing strategies in bionanocomposites. Prog Polym Sci 38(10–11):1543–1589Google Scholar
  92. Okada K, Mitsunaga T, Nagase Y (2003) Properties and particles dispersion of biodegradable resin/clay nanocomposites. Korea-Aust Rheol J 15(1):43–50Google Scholar
  93. Pandey JK, Singh RP (2005) Green nanocomposites from renewable resources: effect of plasticizer on the structure and material properties of clay-filled starch. Starch/Stärke 57(1):8–15Google Scholar
  94. Pantoustier N, Lepoittevin B, Alexandre M, Dubois P, Kubies D, Calberg Cd, Jérôme R (2002) Biodegradable polyester layered silicate nanocomposites based on poly(ε-caprolactone). Polym Eng Sci 42(9):1928–1937Google Scholar
  95. Parbhakar A, Cuadros J, Sephton MA, Dubbin W, Coles BJ, Weiss D (2007) Adsorption of l-lysine on montmorillonite. Colloids Surf A 307(1–3):142–149Google Scholar
  96. Park H-M, Lee W-K, Park C-Y, Cho W-J, Ha C-S (2003) Environmentally friendly polymer hybrids part I mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of thermoplastic starch/clay nanocomposites. J Mater Sci 38(5):909–915Google Scholar
  97. Park H-M, Li X, Jin C-Z, Park C-Y, Cho W-J, Ha C-S (2002) Preparation and properties of biodegradable thermoplastic starch/clay hybrids. Macromol Mater Eng 287(8):553–558Google Scholar
  98. Park H-M, Liang X, Mohanty AK, Misra M, Drzal LT (2004a) Effect of compatibilizer on nanostructure of the biodegradable cellulose acetate/organoclay nanocomposites. Macromolecules 37(24):9076–9082Google Scholar
  99. Park H-M, Misra M, Drzal LT, Mohanty AK (2004b) “Green” nanocomposites from cellulose acetate bioplastic and clay: effect of eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer. Biomacromolecules 5(6):2281–2288Google Scholar
  100. Park H-M, Mohanty AK, Drzal LT, Lee E, Mielewski DF, Misra M (2006) Effect of sequential mixing and compounding conditions on cellulose acetate/layered silicate nanocomposites. J Polym Environ 14(1):27–35Google Scholar
  101. Paul M-A, Alexandre M, Degée P, Henrist C, Rulmont A, Dubois P (2003) New nanocomposite materials based on plasticized poly(l-lactide) and organo-modified montmorillonites: thermal and morphological study. Polymers 44(2):443–450Google Scholar
  102. Pavlidou S, Papaspyrides CD (2008) A review on polymer–layered silicate nanocomposites. Prog Polym Sci 33(12):1119–1198Google Scholar
  103. Pérez CJ, Alvarez VA, Mondragón I, Vázquez A (2007) Mechanical properties of layered silicate/starch polycaprolactone blend nanocomposites. Polym Int 56(5):686–693Google Scholar
  104. Pérez CJ, Alvarez VA, Mondragón I, Vázquez A (2008) Water uptake behavior of layered silicate/starch–polycaprolactone blend nanocomposites. Polym Int 57(2):247–253Google Scholar
  105. Pluta M, Paul M-A, Alexandre M, Dubois P (2006) Plasticized polylactide/clay nanocomposites. II. The effect of aging on structure and properties in relation to the filler content and the nature of its organo-modification. J Polym Sci, Part B: Polym Phys 44(2):299–311Google Scholar
  106. Qiao X, Jiang W, Sun K (2005) Reinforced thermoplastic acetylated starch with layered silicates. Starch/Stärke 57(12):581–586Google Scholar
  107. Ravichandran J, Lakshmanan CM, Sivasankar B (1996) Acid activated montmorillonite and vermiculite clays as dehydration and cracking catalysts. React Kinet Catal Lett 59(2):301–308Google Scholar
  108. Ray SS, Okamoto K, Maiti P, Okamotoa M (2002) New poly(butylene succinate)/layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation and mechanical properties. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2(2):171–176Google Scholar
  109. Ray SS, Okamoto M (2003) Biodegradable polylactide and its nanocomposites: opening a new dimension for plastics and composites. Macromol Rapid Commun 24(14):815–840Google Scholar
  110. Rhim J-W, Hong S-I, Ha C-S (2009) Tensile, water vapor barrier and antimicrobial properties of PLA/nanoclay composite films. LWT Food Sci Technol 42(2):612–617Google Scholar
  111. Rhim J-W, Hong S-I, Park H-M, Ng PKW (2006) Preparation and characterization of chitosan-based nanocomposite films with antimicrobial activity. J Agric Food Chem 54(16):5814–5822Google Scholar
  112. Rhim J-W, Park H-M, Ha C-S (2013) Bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications. Prog Polym Sci 38(10–11):1629–1652Google Scholar
  113. Rodríguez FJ, Galotto MJ, Guarda A, Bruna JE (2012) Modification of cellulose acetate films using nanofillers based on organoclays. J Food Eng 110(2):262–268Google Scholar
  114. Roelofs JCAA, Berben PH (2006) Preparation and performance of synthetic organoclays. Appl Clay Sci 33(1):13–20Google Scholar
  115. Romero RB, Leite CAP, Gonçalves MdC (2009) The effect of the solvent on the morphology of cellulose acetate/montmorillonite nanocomposites. Polymers 50(1):161–170Google Scholar
  116. Rong MZ, Zhang MQ, Liu Y, Zhang ZW, Yang GC, Zeng HM (2002) Effect of stitching on in-plane and interlaminar properties of sisal/epoxy laminates. J Compos Mater 36(12):1505–1526Google Scholar
  117. Rong MZ, Zhang MQ, Ruan WH (2006) Surface modification of nanoscale fillers for improving properties of polymer nanocomposites: a review. Mater Sci Technol 22(7):787–796Google Scholar
  118. Sanchez-Garcia MD, Lagaron JM (2010) Novel clay-based nanobiocomposites of biopolyesters with synergistic barrier to UV light, gas, and vapour. J Appl Polym Sci 118(1):188–199Google Scholar
  119. Schlemmer D, Angélica RS, Sales MJA (2010) Morphological and thermomechanical characterization of thermoplastic starch/montmorillonite nanocomposites. Compos Struct 92(9):2066–2070Google Scholar
  120. Shen L, Haufe J, Patel MK, Excellence EB, European Polysacharide Network of Excellence (2009) Product overview and market projection of emerging bio-based plastics. Utrecht, Netherlands, Group Science, Technology and Society (STS); Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and innovation, Utrecht UniversityGoogle Scholar
  121. Shen W, He H, Zhu J, Yuan P, Frost RL (2007) Grafting of montmorillonite with different functional silanes via two different reaction systems. J Colloid Interface Sci 313(1):268–273Google Scholar
  122. Shen W, He H, Zhu J, Yuan P, Ma Y, Liang X (2008) Preparation and characterization of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane grafted montmorillonite and acid-activated montmorillonite. Chin Sci Bull 54(2):265–271Google Scholar
  123. Shibata M, Someya Y, Orihara M, Miyoshi M (2006) Thermal and mechanical properties of plasticized poly(L-lactide) nanocomposites with organo-modified montmorillonites. J Appl Polym Sci 99(5):2594–2602Google Scholar
  124. Shih YF, Wang TY, Jeng RJ, Wu JY, Teng CC (2007) Biodegradable nanocomposites based on poly(butylene succinate)/organoclay. J Polym Environ 15(2):151–158Google Scholar
  125. Shih YF, Wang TY, Jeng RJ, Wu JY, Wuu DS (2008) Cross-linked and uncross-linked biodegradable nanocomposites. I. Nonisothermal crystallization kinetics and gas permeability. J Appl Polym Sci 110(2):1068–1079Google Scholar
  126. Singha AS, Thakur VK (2010) Mechanical, morphological, and thermal characterization of compression-molded polymer biocomposites. Int J Polym Anal Charact 15(2):87–97Google Scholar
  127. Sinha Ray S, Maiti P, Okamoto M, Yamada K, Ueda K (2002) New polylactide/layered silicate nanocomposites. 1. preparation, characterization, and properties. Macromolecules 35(8):3104–3110Google Scholar
  128. Sinha Ray S, Okamoto K and Okamoto M (2003a) Structure—property relationship in biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/layered silicate nanocomposites. Macromolecules 36(7):2355–2367Google Scholar
  129. Sinha Ray S, Yamada K, Okamoto M, Fujimoto Y, Ogami A, Ueda K (2003b) New polylactide/layered silicate nanocomposites. 5. Designing of materials with desired properties. Polymers 44(21):6633–6646Google Scholar
  130. Sinha Ray S, Okamoto M (2003) Polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites: a review from preparation to processing. Prog Polym Sci 28(11):1539–1641Google Scholar
  131. Siqueira G, Bras J, Dufresne A (2010) Cellulosic bionanocomposites: a review of preparation. Properties and applications. Polymers 2(4):728–765Google Scholar
  132. Siró I, Plackett D (2010) Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials: a review. Cellulose 17(3):459–494Google Scholar
  133. Slavutsky AM, Bertuzzi MA, Armada M, García MG, Ochoa NA (2014) Preparation and characterization of montmorillonite/brea gum nanocomposites films. Food Hydrocolloids 35(Complete):270–278Google Scholar
  134. Someya Y, Nakazato T, Teramoto N, Shibata M (2004) Thermal and mechanical properties of poly(butylene succinate) nanocomposites with various organo-modified montmorillonites. J Appl Polym Sci 91(3):1463–1475Google Scholar
  135. Steudel A, Batenburg LF, Fischer HR, Weidler PG, Emmerich K (2009) Alteration of swelling clay minerals by acid activation. Appl Clay Sci 44:105–115Google Scholar
  136. Svensson A, Nicklasson E, Harrah T, Panilaitis B, Kaplan DL, Brittberg M, Gatenholm P (2005) Bacterial cellulose as a potential scaffold for tissue engineering of cartilage. Biomaterials 26(4):419–431Google Scholar
  137. Takahashi N, Kuroda K (2011) Materials design of layered silicates through covalent modification of interlayer surfaces. J Mater Chem 21(38):14336–14336Google Scholar
  138. Tasdelen MA (2011) Poly(ε-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites via “click” chemistry. Eur Polym J 47(5):937–941Google Scholar
  139. Thakur VK, Singha AS, Mehta IK (2010) Renewable resource-based green polymer composites: analysis and characterization. Int J Polym Anal Charact 15(3):137–146Google Scholar
  140. Thakur VK, Thakur MK (2014a) Processing and characterization of natural cellulose fibers/thermoset polymer composites. Carbohydr Polym 109:102–117Google Scholar
  141. Thakur VK, Thakur MK (2014b) Recent trends in hydrogels based on psyllium polysaccharide: a review. J Cleaner Prod 82:1–15Google Scholar
  142. Thakur VK, Thakur MK (2014c) Recent advances in graft copolymerization and applications of chitosan: a review. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2:2637–2652Google Scholar
  143. Thakur VK, Thakur MK, Gupta RK (2014a) Review: raw natural fiber-based polymer composites. Int J Polym Anal Charact 19:256–271Google Scholar
  144. Thakur VK, Vennerberg D, Kessler MR (2014b) Green aqueous surface modification of polypropylene for novel polymer nanocomposites. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:9349–9356Google Scholar
  145. Thakur VK, Thakur MK, Raghavan P, Kessler MR (2014c) Progress in green polymer composites from lignin for multifunctional applications: a review. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2(5):1072–1092Google Scholar
  146. Thellen C, Orroth C, Froio D, Ziegler D, Lucciarini J, Farrell R, D’Souza NA, Ratto JA (2005) Influence of montmorillonite layered silicate on plasticized poly(l-lactide) blown films. Polym 46(25):11716–11727Google Scholar
  147. RA Vaia, Giannelis EP (1997) Lattice model of polymer melt intercalation in organically-modified layered silicates. Macromolecules 30:7990–7999Google Scholar
  148. VanderHart DL, Asano A, Gilman JW (2001a) NMR measurements related to clay-dispersion quality and organic-modifier stability in nylon-6/clay nanocomposites. Macromolecules 34(12):3819–3822Google Scholar
  149. VanderHart DL, Asano A, Gilman JW (2001b) Solid-state NMR investigation of paramagnetic nylon-6 clay nanocomposites. 2. Measurement of clay dispersion, crystal stratification, and stability of organic modifiers. Chem Mater 13:3796–3809Google Scholar
  150. Viville P, Lazzaroni R, Pollet E, Alexandre M, Dubois P, Borcia G, Pireaux J-J (2003) Surface characterization of poly(ε-caprolactone)-based nanocomposites. Langmuir 19(22):9425–9433Google Scholar
  151. Wang S, Song C, Chen G, Guo T, Liu J, Zhang B, Takeuchi S (2005a) Characteristics and biodegradation properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/organophilic montmorillonite (PHBV/OMMT) nanocomposite. Polym Degrad Stab 87(1):69–76Google Scholar
  152. Wang SF, Shen L, Tong YJ, Chen L, Phang IY, Lim PQ and Liu TX (2005b) Biopolymer chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposites: preparation and characterization. Polym Degrad Stab 90(1):123–131Google Scholar
  153. Wang X, Liu B, Ren J, Liu C, Wang X, Wu J, Sun R (2010) Preparation and characterization of new quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/rectorite nanocomposite. Compos Sci Technol 70(7):1161–1167Google Scholar
  154. Weon JI, Sue HJ (2005) Effects of clay orientation and aspect ratio on mechanical behavior of nylon-6 nanocomposite. Polym 46:6325–6334Google Scholar
  155. Wibowo AC, Misra M, Park H-M, Drzal LT, Schalek R, Mohanty AK (2006) Biodegradable nanocomposites from cellulose acetate: mechanical, morphological, and thermal properties. Compos A 37(9):1428–1433Google Scholar
  156. Wilhelm HMM, Sierakowski MRR, Souza GPP, Wypych F (2003) Starch films reinforced with mineral clay. Carbohydr Polym 52(2):101–110Google Scholar
  157. Wu T, Xie T, Yang G (2009) Preparation and characterization of poly(ε-caprolactone)/Na+-MMT nanocomposites. Appl Clay Sci 45(3):105–110Google Scholar
  158. Wu T-M, Wu C-Y (2006) Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)/chitosan-modified montmorillonite nanocomposites: preparation and characterization. Polym Degrad Stab 91(9):2198–2204Google Scholar
  159. Xi Y, Ding Z, He H, Frost RL (2004) Structure of organoclays—an X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis study. J Colloid Interface Sci 277:116–120Google Scholar
  160. Xi Y, Frost RL, He H (2007) Modification of the surfaces of Wyoming montmorillonite by the cationic surfactants alkyl trimethyl, dialkyl dimethyl, and trialkyl methyl ammonium bromides. J Colloid Interface Sci 305(1):150–158Google Scholar
  161. Xie W, Gao Z, Liu K, Pan WP, Vaia R, Hunter D, Singh A (2001) Thermal characterization of organically modified montmorillonite. Thermochim Acta 367–368:339–350Google Scholar
  162. Xie W, Xie R, Pan W-P, Hunter D, Koene B, Tan L-S, Vaia R (2002) Thermal stability of quaternary phosphonium modified montmorillonites. Chem Mater 14(11):4837–4845Google Scholar
  163. Xu Y, Ren X, Hanna MA (2006) Chitosan/clay nanocomposite film preparation and characterization. J Appl Polym Sci 99(4):1684–1691Google Scholar
  164. Zampori L, Gallo Stampino P, Dotelli G, Botta D, Natali Sora I, Setti M (2008) Interlayer expansion of dimethyl ditallowylammonium montmorillonite as a function of 2-chloroaniline adsorption. Appl Clay Sci 41(3–4):149–157Google Scholar
  165. Zeppa C, Gouanvé F, Espuche E (2009) Effect of a plasticizer on the structure of biodegradable starch/clay nanocomposites: thermal, water-sorption, and oxygen-barrier properties. J Appl Polym Sci 112(4):2044–2056Google Scholar
  166. Zhang K, Xu J, Wang KY, Cheng L, Wang J, Liu B (2009) Preparation and characterization of chitosan nanocomposites with vermiculite of different modification. Polym Degrad Stab 94(12):2121–2127Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Composite Materials Group (CoMP), INTEMANational University of Mar del PlataBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations