School Attendance and Employment of Youth in India: Convergence Across Caste and Religious Groups?

  • Tushar K. Nandi
Part of the India Studies in Business and Economics book series (ISBE)


This chapter studies the employment and education of youth in India during a period of rapid economic growth. The chapter uses data from three successive rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) data on employment and unemployment, 55–66th, to study the social division in schooling and employment of young Indians (15–24 years old) during the period 1999–2009. Descriptive and econometric results show that the difference in schooling and employment across caste and religious groups has declined for males. There is an indication of convergence in the schooling among males. The difference, across caste and religious groups, in schooling and employment has declined for females as well. The difference in employment shows a slower sign of convergence across religions.


Religious Group School Attendance Multinomial Logit Model Human Capital Investment National Sample Survey 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Asadullah MN, Kambhampati U, Bóo FL (2009) Social divisions in school participation and attainment in India: 1983–2004. Inter-American Development Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker G (1964) Human capital: a theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Borooah VK, Iyer S (2005) Vidya, Veda, and Varna: the influence of religion and caste on education in rural India. J Dev Stud 41(8):1369–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burns J, Godlonton S, Keswell M (2010) Social networks, employment and worker discouragement: evidence from South Africa. Labour Econ 17(2):336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dostie B, Jayaraman R (2006) Determinants of school enrollments in Indian villages. Econ Dev Cult Chang 54(2):405–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dreze J, Kingdon GG (2001) School participation in rural India. Rev Dev Econ 5(1):1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mitra A, Verick S (2013) Youth employment and unemployment: an Indian perspective. ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper SeriesGoogle Scholar
  8. Munshi K, Rosenzweig M (2006) Traditional institutions meet the modern world: caste, gender, and schooling choice in a globalizing economy. Am Econ Rev 96(4):1225–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Nandi TK (2010) Social networks and employment in India. Econ Bull 30(4):2769–2778Google Scholar
  10. Nguyen AC, Taylor J (2003) Post-high school choices: new evidence from a multinomial logit model. J Popul Econ 16(2):287–306Google Scholar
  11. Rice P (1999) The impact of local labour markets on investment in further education: evidence from England and Wales youth cohort studies. J Popul Econ 12:287–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rouse C (1994) What to do after high school: the two-year versus four-year college enrollment decision. In: Ehrenberg RG (ed) Choices and consequences: contemporary policy issues in education. ILR Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  13. World Bank (2011) Poverty and social exclusion in India. World Bank, Washington DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CTRPFPCentre for Studies in Social Sciences (CSSS)KolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations