Management of Distant Metastases in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Part of the Head and Neck Cancer Clinics book series (HNCC)


Follicular cell-derived differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a disease characterized by long-term survival and excellent prognosis. Large-scale studies have defined 10-year survival rates of 85 % in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and ~93 % in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) [1–5]. Despite this, published series report that 6–20 % of patients will develop distant metastatic disease [3, 4, 6–16]. Outcomes in these patients with distant disease are significantly worse, with 10-year survival rates closely approximating 40 % [3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12–23]. Numerous risk factors have been linked to the development of both regional and distant disease. These include age, tumour size, extrathyroidal extension, multifocality and palpable lymphadenopathy [3, 8, 11, 24]. In 5–45 % of patients, distant disease will be discovered at the time of initial diagnosis on cross-sectional imaging or post-therapy radioactive iodine (RAI) scans [1, 6, 15, 18, 19, 22, 25, 26]. The remainder of patients will develop metastatic recurrence during follow-up. In this latter group, distant disease may be discovered more than 10 years after the initial treatment.


Thyroid Cancer Bone Metastasis External Beam Radiation Papillary Thyroid Cancer Differentiate Thyroid Cancer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© K. Alok Pathak, Richard W. Nason, Janice L. Pasieka, Rehan Kazi, Raghav C. Dwivedi 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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