Endoscopic Diagnosis and Management of Swallowing Disorders
Dysphagia, odynophagia, retrosternal chest pain, regurgitation, and heartburn are the major symptoms of esophageal disorders. In oropharyngeal dysphagia, there is inability to initiate swallow, nasopharyngeal regurgitation, coughing or choking on attempted eating, or aspiration. Esophageal disorders can be classified as obstructive and nonobstructive etiology. Esophageal diameter less than 15 mm will lead to obstructive disorder and present with dysphagia to solids more in comparison to liquids. Nonobstructive disorders especially motor disorder present with dysphagia to both solids and liquids. Odynophagia, food impaction, or chest pain can also be seen. Dysphagia can be acute as in case of food impaction, pill, and infective esophagitis. Intermittent dysphagia is seen in rings and webs, while progressive dysphagia is seen in malignancy and strictures.