Advertisement

Clinical Management of HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer

  • Marshall R. Posner
Part of the Head and Neck Cancer Clinics book series (HNCC)

Abstract

The demographics and prognosis of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) have changed dramatically over the past two decades. Epidemiological evidence has revealed a significant increase in the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) in North America and Europe [1–3]. Molecular studies of oropharyngeal tumours have revealed that this increase is due to a rise in the incidence of tumours containing human papillomavirus (HPV), most specifically HPV16. Evidence shows that HPV16 is the molecular cause that mechanistically drives the development and viability of the cancer cells [4]. HPV-associated OPC (HPVOPC) presently accounts for ~70 % of OPC seen in the USA, and an increasing fraction of these malignancies is seen in Europe [1, 2, 5].

Keywords

Overall Survival Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Poor Prognostic Feature Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study Lower Level Node 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Anderson WF, et al. Incidence trends for human papillomavirus-related and -unrelated oral squamous cell carcinomas in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:612–9.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, et al. Human papillomavirus and rising oropharyngeal cancer incidence in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:4294–301.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dahlstrand HM, Dalianis T. Presence and influence of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in tonsillar cancer. Adv Cancer Res. 2005;93:59–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rampias T, Sasaki C, Weinberger P, et al. E6 and E7 gene silencing and transformed phenotype of human papillomavirus 16-positive oropharyngeal cancer cells. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:412–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Näsman A, Attner P, Hammarstedt L, et al. Incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive tonsillar carcinoma in Stockholm, Sweden: an epidemic of viral-induced carcinoma? Int J Cancer. 2009;125:362–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dahlgren L, Dahlstrand HM, Lindquist D, et al. Human papillomavirus is more common in base of tongue than in mobile tongue cancer and is a favorable prognostic factor in base of tongue cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2004;112:1015–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lingen MW, Xiao W, Schmitt A, et al. Low etiologic fraction for high-risk human papillomavirus in oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas. Oral Oncol. 2013;49:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Psyrri A, DeFilippis RA, Edwards AP, et al. Role of the retinoblastoma pathway in senescence triggered by repression of the human papillomavirus E7 protein in cervical carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2004;64:3079–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weinberger PM, Yu Z, Haffty BG, et al. Molecular classification identifies a subset of human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancers with favorable prognosis. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:736–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andl T, Kahn T, Pfuhl A, et al. Etiological involvement of oncogenic human papillomavirus in tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas lacking retinoblastoma cell cycle control. Cancer Res. 1998;58:5–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Münger K, Baldwin A, Edwards KM, et al. Mechanisms of human papillomavirus-induced oncogenesis. J Virol. 2004;78:11451–60.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McLaughlin-Drubin ME, Münger K. Oncogenic activities of human papillomaviruses. Virus Res. 2009;143:195–208.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hasegawa M, Nelson HH, Peters E, et al. Patterns of gene promoter methylation in squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Oncogene. 2002;21:4231–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mellin Dahlstrand H, Lindquist D, Björnestål L, et al. P16(INK4a) correlates to human papillomavirus presence, response to radiotherapy and clinical outcome in tonsillar carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:4375–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ang KK, Harris J, Wheeler R, et al. Human papillomavirus and survival of patients with oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:24–35.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gillison M, Koch WM, Capone R, et al. Evidence for a causal association between human papillomavirus and a subset of head and neck cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92:709–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gillison ML. Human papillomavirus and prognosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: Implications for clinical research in head and neck cancers. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:5623–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ringström E, Peters E, Hasegawa M, et al. Human papillomavirus type 16 and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8:3187–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Applebaum KM, Furniss CS, Zeka A, et al. Lack of association of alcohol and tobacco with HPV16-associated head and neck cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:1801–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D’Souza G, Kreimer AR, Viscidi R, et al. Case–control study of human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1944–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gillison ML, D’Souza G, Westra W, et al. Distinct risk factor profiles for human papillomavirus type 16-positive and human papillomavirus type 16-negative head and neck cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:407–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lassen P, Eriksen JG, Hamilton-Dutoit S, et al. Effect of HPV-associated p16INK4A expression on response to radiotherapy and survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1992–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Licitra L, Perrone F, Bossi P, et al. High-risk human papillomavirus affects prognosis in patients with surgically treated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:5630–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Adelstein DJ, Ridge JA, Brizel DM, et al. Transoral resection of pharyngeal cancer: summary of a national cancer institute head and neck cancer steering committee clinical trials planning meeting, 6–7 November 2011, Arlington, Virginia. Head Neck. 2012;34:1681–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Haughey BH, Hinni ML, Salassa JR, et al. Transoral laser microsurgery as primary treatment for advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer: a United States multicenter study. Head Neck. 2011;33:1683–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cmelak AJ, Li S, Goldwasser MA, et al. Phase II trial of chemoradiation for organ preservation in resectable stage III or IV squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx or oropharynx: results of eastern cooperative oncology group study E2399. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:3971–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fakhry C, Westra WH, Li S, et al. Improved survival of patients with human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a prospective clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:261–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Worden FP, Kumar B, Lee JS, et al. Chemoselection as a strategy for organ preservation in advanced oropharynx cancer: response and survival positively associated with HPV16 copy number. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3138–46.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kumar B, Cordell KG, Lee JS, et al. EGFR, p16, HPV Titer, Bcl-xL and p53, sex, and smoking as indicators of response to therapy and survival in oropharyngeal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3128–37.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Posner MR, Lorch JH, Goloubeva O, et al. Survival and human papillomavirus in oropharynx cancer in TAX 324: A subset analysis from an international phase III trial. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:1071–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rischin D, Young RJ, Fisher R, et al. Prognostic significance of p16INK4A and human papillomavirus in patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated on TROG 02.02 phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:4142–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gillison ML, Zhang Q, Jordan R, et al. Tobacco smoking and increased risk of death and progression for patients with p16-positive and p16-negative oropharyngeal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:2102–11.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Maxwell JH, Kumar B, Feng FY, et al. Tobacco use in human papillomavirus-positive advanced oropharynx cancer patients related to increased risk of distant metastases and tumor recurrence. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:1226–35.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Spector ME, Gallagher KK, Light E, et al. Matted nodes: poor prognostic marker in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma independent of HPV and EGFR status. Head Neck. 2012;34:1727–33.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cooper J, Pajak TF, Forastiere A, et al. Postoperative concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-risk squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1937–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cooper JS, Zhang Q, Pajak TF, et al. Long-term follow-up of the RTOG 9501/intergroup phase III trial: postoperative concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy in high-risk squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84:1198–205.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bernier J, Domenge C, Ozsahin M, et al. Postoperative irradiation with or without concomitant chemotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1945–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yanagawa N, Wang A, Kohler D, et al. Human papilloma virus genome is rare in North American non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. Lung Cancer. 2013;79:215–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Machtay M, Moughan J, Trotti A, et al. Factors associated with severe late toxicity after concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer: an RTOG analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3582–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Adelstein D, Li Y, Adams G, et al. An Intergroup Phase III comparison of standard radiation therapy and two schedules of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with unresectable squamous cell head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:92–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Forastiere A, Maor M, Weber R, et al. Long term results of Intergroup RTOG 91–11: a phase III trial to preserve the larynx—induction cisplatin/5-FU and radiation therapy versus concurrent cisplatin and radiation therapy versus radiation therapy. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2006;5517.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Staar S, Rudat V, Stuetzer H, et al. Intensified hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy limits the additional benefit of simultaneous chemotherap—results of a multicentric randomized german trial in advanced head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;50:1161–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Taylor S, Murthy A, Vannetzel J, et al. Randomized comparison of neoadjuvant cisplatin and fluorouracil infusion followed by radiation versus concomitant treatment in advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1994;12:385–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Best SR, Ha PK, Blanco RG, et al. Factors associated with pharyngoesophageal stricture in patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2011;33:1727–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Forastiere AA, Zhang Q, Weber RS, et al. Long-term results of RTOG 91–11: a comparison of three nonsurgical treatment strategies to preserve the larynx in patients with locally advanced larynx cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:845–52.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Carole Fakhry, Gypsyamber D’Souza, Rehan Kazi and Raghav C. Dwivedi  2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations