Anatomical Sites and Subsites of Head and Neck Cancer
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents the sixth most common solid tumour malignancy with more than 500,000 cases worldwide and 52,000 newly diagnosed cases annually . These tumours arise from the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, which holds important functional roles for respiration, speech and swallowing. Both surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities achieve a cure for ~50 % of HNSCC patients at 5 years;  however, these same treatment regimens can also be debilitating, both functionally and cosmetically. An understanding of the anatomical origins of HNSCC tumours is paramount to making an appropriate diagnosis, for treatment and for post-treatment tumour surveillance in all cases.
KeywordsOral Cavity Smokeless Tobacco Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oral Cavity Subsite
- 1.American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures 2012. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2012.Google Scholar
- 2.Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. editors. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations). Bethesda: National Cancer Institute. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2009_pops09/, based on November 2011 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER website, April 2012.
- 3.Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., editors. AJCC cancer staging handbook: from the AJCC cancer staging manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010.Google Scholar
- 4.Mahboubi E, Sayed GM. Oral cavity and pharynx. In: Schottenfeld JD, Fraumeni JF, editors. Cancer epidemiology and prevention. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1982. p. 583–95.Google Scholar
- 5.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: current cigarette smoking among adults aged ≥18 years—United States, 2005–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:1207–12.Google Scholar
- 6.Healthy People 2020. Tobacco use. Available at http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=41.
- 7.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Trends in current cigarette smoking among high school students and adults. United States, 1965–2010. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/tables/trends/cig_smoking/.
- 13.Giovino GA, Schooley MW, Zhu BP, et al. Surveillance for selected tobacco-use behaviors—United States, 1900–1994. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1994;43:1–43.Google Scholar
- 17.Hashibe M, Brennan P, Benhamou S, et al. Alcohol drinking in never users of tobacco, cigarette smoking in never drinkers, and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007;99:777–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar