The Deformed Shoulder Girdle

  • Benjamin Joseph


Congenital anomalies of the scapula, clavicle, and shoulder are relatively rare (McClure and Raney 1975; Williams 2003) but when present can affect the range of motion of the shoulder and alter its contour. The more common anomalies of the scapula include abnormalities in the position, mobility, size, and shape of the scapula and its processes; agenesis and duplication are exceedingly rare. Anomalies of the clavicle include a short clavicle, partial failure of formation, and pseudarthrosis (Beals 2000; Currarino and Herring 2009; Fairbank 1949); a pseudarthrosis can be mistaken for a birth fracture of the clavicle. Abnormalities of muscles include contractures and aplasia; contractures of muscles of the shoulder that result in deformities and limitation of motion are relatively common (Axt et al. 1997).


Glenohumeral Joint Shoulder Girdle Fetal Movement Coracoid Process Passive Range 
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Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Joseph
    • 1
  1. 1.Aster MedcityKochiIndia

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