The Deformed Femur

  • Randall T. Loder


Malformation of the femur may be an isolated anomaly, or it may be associated with abnormalities involving the hip, knee, or the rest of the skeleton. Congenital anomalies of the femur include shortening, failure of development of the proximal or distal ends of the femur, bowing, or duplication; some of these may occur together.


Substance Abuse Femoral Head Proximal Femur Femoral Condyle Osteogenesis Imperfecta 


  1. Aalami-Harandi B, Zahir A. Congenital bifid femur. Acta Orthop Scand. 1976;47:419–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aitken GT. Proximal femoral focal deficiency: definition, classification and management. In: Aitken G, editor. Proximal femoral focal deficiency: a congenital anomaly. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences; 1969. p. 1–22.Google Scholar
  3. Alanay Y, Krakow D, Rimoin DL, et al. Angulated femurs and the skeletal dysplasias: experience of the international skeletal dysplasia registry (1988–2006). Am J Med Genet Part A. 2007;143A:1159–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cormier-Daire V, Geneviève D, Munnich A, et al. New insights in congenital bowing of the femora. Clin Genet. 2004;66:169–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gillespie R. Classification of congenital abnormalities of the femur. In: Jherring JA, Birch JG, editors. The child with a limb deficiency. Rosemont: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 1998. p. 63–72.Google Scholar
  6. Gillespie R, Torode IP. Classification and management of congenital abnormalities of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1983;65-B:557–68.Google Scholar
  7. Gilsanz V. Distal femoral focal deficiency. Radiology. 1983;147:105–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gonçalves LF, De Luca GR, Vitorello DA, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of bilateral proximal femoral hypoplasia. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1996;8:127–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grissom LE, Harcke HT. Sonography in congenital deficiency of the femur. J Pediatr Orthop. 1994;14:29–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hassan A, Whately C, Letts M. The orthopaedic manifestations and management of children with Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92-B:880–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kayser R, Mahlfeld K, Grasshoff H, et al. Proximal focal femoral deficiency – a rare entity in the sonographic differential diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr. 2005;146:141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kotakemori K, Ito J. Femoral bifurcation with tibial aplasia. A case report and review of the literature. Clin Orthop. 1978;135:26–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Küsswetter W, Matzen KA, Baumann D. Bifurcation of the distal femur. Acta Orthop Scand. 1976;47:648–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lange DR, Schoenecker PL, Baker CL. Proximal femoral focal deficiency: treatment and classification in forty-two cases. Clin Orthop. 1978;135:15–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Panting AL, Williams PF. Proximal femoral focal deficiency. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1978;60-B:46–52.Google Scholar
  16. Pappas AM. Congenital abnormalities of the femur and related lower extremity malformations: classification and treatment. J Pediatr Orthop. 1983;3:45–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sanpera Jr I, Fixsen JA, Sparks LT, et al. Knee in congenital short femur. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1995;4:159–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Taylor BC, Kean J, Paloski M. Distal focal femoral deficiency. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009;29:576–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Turnpenny PD, Dakwar RA, Boulos FN. Kyphomelic dysplasia: the first 10 cases. J Med Genet. 1990;27:269–72.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randall T. Loder
    • 1
  1. 1.James Whitcomb HospitalIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations