Growth and Characterization of Nanocrystalline CuInSSe Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis
Nanocrystalline CuInSSe thin films were grown on glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique. The CuInSSe films were co-deposited from an aqueous solution containing CuCl2, InCl3, thiourea and SeO2. EDC was used as a complexing agent and films were deposited at the constant temperature 300 °C. XRD, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-Ray (EDAX) were used to characterize the samples and the results indicate that the films are single phase, p-type in conductivity and having the chalcopyrite structure. Optical studies show that the optical gap values are 1.23 and 1.39 eV for films grown from spray solutions having S/Se ionic ratios 0.3 and 0.7 respectively. Using the Scherer formula the average crystallite size of the films was found to be in the range 5–11 nm.
KeywordsSpray Pyrolysis Spray Process Grown Film Spray Pyrolysis Technique Ethylene Diamine Dihydrochloride
This work is being funded by the Madhya Pradesh Council of Science and Technology (MPCST), Bhopal, India through research project No. 1078/CST/R&D/2012 for which Authors are thankful. One of the Authors, V. Shrotriya is grateful to MPCST for the JRF. The Authors are also thankful to IIC, IIT Roorkee for providing XRD and SEM/EDAX facilities.
- 1.Mitchell KW, Pollock GA, Mason AV (1988) 7.3 % efficient CuInSe2 solar cell. In: Proceeding of the 20th IEEE photovoltaic specialists conference, IEEE, New York, p 1542. doi: 10.1109/PVSC.1988.105967
- 2.Goossens A, Hofhuis J (2008) Spray deposited CuInS2 solar cells. Nanotechnol 19:424018–424025. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/19/42/424018
- 3.Braunger D, Hariskos D, Walter T, Schock HW (1996) An 11.4 % efficient polycrystalline thin film solar cell based on CuInS2 with a Cd-free buffer layer. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 40(2):97–102. SSDI 0927-0248(95)00069-0Google Scholar
- 4.Hedstrom J et al (1993). ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells with improved performance. In: Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE photovoltaic specialists conference, pp 364–371Google Scholar
- 5.Subbaramaiah K, Sundara Raja V (1992). Structural and optical properties of spray-deposited CuIn(S1-xSex)2 thin film. Thin Solid Films 208:247–251Google Scholar
- 6.Hou WW, Bob B, Li SH, Yang Y (2009). Low-temperature processing of a solution-deposited CuInSSe thin-film solar cell. Thin Solid Films 517:6853–6856. doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2009.06.032
- 7.Chavhan S, Sharma R (2006) Growth, structural and optical properties of non-stoichiometric CuIn(S1-xSex)2 thin film deposited by solution growth technique for photovoltaic application. J Phys Chem Solids 67:767–773. doi: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2005.11.013
- 8.Bates CW, Nelson KF, Raza SA, Mooney JB, Recktenwald JM, Macintosh L, Lamoreaux R (1982) Spray pyrolysis and heat treatment of CuInSe2 for photovoltaic applications. Thin Solid Films 88:279. doi: 10.1016/0040-6090(82)90058-X
- 9.Kazmerski LL, Ayyagari MS, Anvor GA, White FR, Merrill AJ, Merrill AJ (1976) Electron and X-ray diffraction analysis of ternary compound (Ι-ΙΙ-VΙ2) thin films. Thin Solid Films 37:323Google Scholar