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Calcium (Ca) Uptake

  • Gyanendra Nath Mitra

Abstract

Healthy plants growing under conditions of adequate calcium (Ca2+) supply have a calcium content of 0.1–5 % of their shoot dry weight. A steady supply of Ca2+ is required for normal plant growth. Cytoplasmic concentration of Ca2+ needs to be strictly regulated at nanomolar (nM) range, though Ca2+ concentration in μM to mM ranges occurs in cell wall and plasma membrane externally and vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, plastids and mitochondria internally.

Movement of Ca2+ is slow and its distribution unequal within the plants. The older leaves contain more Ca2+ than the younger ones. Since Ca2+ at higher concentration is cytotoxic, its movement through phloem is strictly regulated. Calcium is involved in regulating various fundamental processes such as cytoplasmic streaming, thigmotropism, gravitropism, cell division, cell elongation, cell differentiation, cell polarity, photomorphogenesis and plant defence and stress responses. Calcium also functions as a sensing and signalling molecule. Various abiotic stresses, such as cold, heat, salinity, drought, osmotic and oxidative stresses, physical stimuli – touch and swaying of the plants by wind – etc., cause transient perturbations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, which are restored to basal levels within minutes. Calcium homeostasis in cytoplasm is achieved through regulation of influx/efflux of Ca2+ ion by (i) calcium channels, (ii) Ca2+/H+ antiporters and (iii) Ca-ATPases.

Keywords

Glycine Betaine Cytoplasmic Streaming Sensor Relay Sensor Responder Root Cation Exchange Capacity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gyanendra Nath Mitra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil Science and Agricultural ChemistryOrissa University of Agriculture and TechnologyBhubaneswarIndia

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