Advertisement

Nitrogen (N) Uptake

  • Gyanendra Nath Mitra

Abstract

Globally indigenous nitrogen in soil cannot meet the crop requirement at contemporary production levels. Synthetic nitrogenous fertilisers along with other nutrients have to be applied to sustain existing production and, in many countries, further increase crop production commensurate with their population growth. Nitrogen use efficiency of crops is abysmally low (25–50 %) under uncontrolled field conditions. This not only is an economic loss, but the unutilised nitrogen also causes environmental pollution.

Nitrogen is taken up by plants as NO3 and NH4 +. It has been recently found that uptake of both the forms is strictly under genetic control. There are high-affinity transporters, which carry the ions across the plasma membrane of root cells when their concentrations in the growth medium are low as well as low-affinity transporters when the concentrations are high. Many of these transporters have been characterised and mechanism of their action is known.

Biotechnological approach to improve nitrogen use efficiency includes overexpression of transporters, manipulation of genes involved in N-uptake, N-assimilation and N-translocation. Transgenic GDH-rice plants have been found to have larger number of tillers, spikelet numbers per panicle, higher biomass production, higher grain yield as well as higher NUE than the control plants. AlaAT transgenic rice shows improved NUE at medium and high N-supply.

Keywords

Glutamine Synthetase Nitrate Uptake Glutamine Synthetase Activity Nitrate Transporter Ammonium Transporter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anthony DM, Glass D, Britto TD, Kaiser BN, James R, Kinghorn JR, Kronzucker HJ, Anshuman A, Okamoto M, Rawat S, Siddiqi MY, Unkles SF, Vidmar JJ (2002) The regulation of nitrate and ammonium transport systems in plants. J Exp Bot 53(370):855–864, Inorganic Nitrogen Assimilation Special IssueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arak R, Hasegawa H (2006) Genes involved in high affinity nitrate transport during the period of nitrate induction. Breed Sci 56:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beatty PH, Carroll RT, Shrawat AK, Guevara D, Good AG (2013) Physiological analysis of nitrogen-efficient rice over-expressing alanine amino-transferase under different N regimes. Botany 91(12):866–883. doi: 10.1139/cjb-2013-0171 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cai C, Zhao X-Q, Zhu Y-G, Li B, Tong Y-P, Li Z-S (2007) Regulation of the high-affinity nitrate transport system in wheat roots by exogenous abscisic acid and glutamine. J Integr Plant Biol 49(12):1719–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caputo C, Fatta N, Barneix A (2001) The export of amino acids in the phloem is altered in wheat plants lacking the short arm of chromosome 7B. J Exp Bot 52:1761–1768CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Century KT, Reuber K, Ratcliffe OJ (2008) Regulating the regulators: the future prospects for transcription-factor-based agricultural biotechnology products. Plant Physiol 147:20–29CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chichkova SJ, Arellano CP, Vance CP, Herna’ndez G (2001) Transgenic tobacco plants that over express alfalfa NADH-glutamate synthase have higher carbon and nitrogen content. J Exp Biol 52:2079–2087Google Scholar
  8. Chopin F, Wirth J, Dorbe MF, Lejay L, Krapp A, Gojon A, Daniel-Vedele F (2007) The Arabidopsis nitrate transporter AtNRT2.1 is targeted to the root plasma membrane. Plant Physiol Biochem 45:630–635CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Crawford NM, Glass ADM (1998) Molecular and physiological aspects of nitrate uptake in plants. Trends Plant Sci Rev 3(10):367–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crété P, Caboche M, Meyer C (1997) Nitrite reductase expression is regulated at the post-transcriptional level by the nitrogen source in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 11:625–634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dechorgnat J, Nguyen CT, Amengaud P, Jossier M, Diatlof E, Filleur S, Daniel-Vedele F (2011) From the soil to the seeds: the long journey of nitrate in plants. J Exp Bot 62(4):1349–1359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dejannane S, Chauvin JE, Quillere I, Meyer C, Chupeau Y (2002) Introduction and expression of a deregulated tobacco nitrate reductase gene in potato lead to highly reduced nitrate levels in transgenic tubers. Transgenic Res 11:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duan YH, Zhang YL, Shen QR, Wang SW (2006) Nitrate effect on rice growth and nitrogen absorption and assimilation at different growth stages. Pedosphere 16:707–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duan YH, Zhang YL, Ye LT, Fan XR, Xu GH, Shen QR (2007) Responses of rice cultivars with different nitrogen use efficiency to partial replaced nitrate nutrition. Ann Bot 99:1153–1160CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fan X, Xie D, Chan J, Lu H, Xu Y, Ma C, Xu G (2014) Over expression of OsPTR6 in rice increased plant growth at different nitrogen supplies but decreased nitrogen use efficiency at high ammonium supply. Plant Sci 227:1–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fei H, Chaillou S, Mahon JD, Vessey JK (2003) Over expression of a soybean cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene linked to organ-specific promoters in pea plants grown in different concentrations of nitrate. Planta 216:467–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Feng H, Yan M, Li B, Shen Q, Miller AJ, Xu G (2011) Spatial expression and regulation of rice high affinity nitrate transporters by nitrogen and carbon status. J Exp Bot 62:2319–2332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Filleur S, Dorbe MF, Cerezo M, Orsel M, Granier F, Gojon A, Daniel-Vedele F (2001) An Arabidopsis T-DNA mutant affected in Nrt2 genes is impaired in nitrate uptake. FEBS Lett 489:220–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Forde BG, Walch-Liu P (2009) Nitrate and glutamate as environmental cues for behavioural responses in plant roots. Plant Cell Environ 32(6):682–693CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Gallais A, Hirel B (2004) An approach to the genetics of nitrogen use efficiency in maize. J Exp Bot 55(396):295–306.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gazzarini S, Lejay L, Gojon A, Ninnemann O, Frommer WB (1999) Three functional transporters for constitutive, diurnally regulated, and starvation-induced uptake of ammonium into Arabidopsis roots. Plant Cell 11:937–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Glass ADM (2003) Nitrogen use efficiency of crop plants: physiological constraints upon nitrogen absorption. Crit Rev Plant Sci 22(5):453–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gojon A, Krouk G, Perrine-Walker F, Laugier E (2011) Nitrate transceptor(s) in plants. J Exp Bot 62:2299–2308. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erq419 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Good AG, Shrawat AK, Muench DG (2004) Can less yield more? Is reducing nutrient input into the environment compatible with maintaining crop production? Trends Plant Sci 9(12):597–605CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Good AG, Johnson SJ, Pauw MD, Carroll RT, Savidov N, Vidmar J, Lu Z, Taylor G, Stroeher V (2007) Engineering nitrogen use efficiency with alanine aminotransferase. Can J Bot 85(3):252–262. doi: 10.1139/B07-019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gregersen PL, Holm PB, Krupinska K (2008) Leaf senescence and nutrient remobilisation in barley and wheat. Plant Biol 10(Suppl 1):37–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gu R, Duan F, An X, Zhang F, von Wiren N, Yuan L (2013) Characterization of AMT-mediated high-affinity ammonium uptake in roots of maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Cell Physiol 54(9):1515–1524CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Gutterson N, Zhang JZ (2004) Genomics applications to biotech traits: a revolution in progress? Curr Opin Plant Biol 7:226–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Habash D, Massiah A, Rong H, Wallsgrove R, Leigh R (2001) The role of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in wheat. Ann Appl Biol 138:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Habash D, Bernard S, Schondelmaier J, Weyen J, Quarrie S (2007) The genetics of nitrogen use in hexaploid wheat: N utilisation, development and yield. Theor Appl Genet 114:403–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hirel B, Bertin P, Quillere I et al (2001) Towards a better understanding of the genetic and physiological basis for nitrogen use efficiency in maize. Plant Physiol 125:1258–1270CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hirel B, Le Gouis J, Ney B, Gallais A (2007) The challenge of improving nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants: towards a more central role for genetic variability and quantitative genetics within integrated approaches. J Exp Bot 58:2369–2387CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ho C-H, Lin S-H, Hu H-C, Tsay Y-F (2009) CHL1 functions as a nitrate sensor in plants. Cell 138(6):1184–1194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoque MS, Masle J, Udvardi MK, Ryan PR, Upadhyaya NM (2006) Over-expression of the rice OsAMT1-1 gene increases ammonium uptake and content, but impairs growth and development of plants under high ammonium nutrition. Funct Plant Biol 33(2):153–163. doi: 10.1071/FP05165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Huber SC, MacKintosh C, Kaiser WM (2002) Metabolic enzymes as targets for 14-3-3 proteins. Plant Mol Biol 50(6):1053–1063CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ishiyama K, Inoue E, Watanabe-Takahashi A, Obara M, Yamaya T, Takahashi H (2004) Kinetic properties and ammonium-dependent regulation of cytosolic isoenzymes of glutamine synthetase in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem 279:16598–16605CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kato Y, Murakami S, Yamamoto Y, Chatani H, Kondo Y, Nakano T (2004) The DNA-binding protease, CND41, and the degradation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase ⁄ oxygenase in senescent leaves of tobacco. Planta 220:97–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kichey T, Heumez E, Pocholle D, Pageau K, Vanacker H, Dubois F, LeGouis J, Hirel B (2006) Combined agronomic and physiological aspects of nitrogen management in wheat highlight a central role for glutamine synthetase. New Phytol 169:265–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. King BJ, Siddiqi MY, Ruth TJ, Warner RH, Glass ADM (1993) Feedback regulation of nitrate influx in barley roots by nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium. Plant Physiol 102:1279–1286PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kirk GJD, Kronzucker HJ (2005) The potential for nitrification and nitrate uptake in the rhizosphere of wetland plants: a modeling study. Ann Bot 96:639–646CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kronzucker HJ, Schjoerring JK, Erner Y, Kirk GJD, Siddiqi MJ, Glass ADM (1998) Dynamic interactions between root NH4 + influx and long-distance N translocation in rice: insights into feedback processes. Plant Cell Physiol 39:1287–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kumar A, Kaiser BN, Siddiqi MY, Glass A (2006) Functional characterization of OsAMT1.1 over-expression lines of rice (Oryza sativa). Funct Plant Biol 33(4):339–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kurai T, Wakayama M, Aoki N, Ohsugi R (2009) Over expression of ZmDof1 in rice alters carbohydrate and nitrogen partitioning. Plant Biol, Abs # P51014Google Scholar
  44. Lansing AJ, Franceschi VR (2000) The para-veinal mesophyll: a specialised path for intermediary transfer of assimilates in legume leaves. Aust J Plant Physiol 27:757–767Google Scholar
  45. Li W, Wang Y, Okamoto M, Crawford NM, Siddiqi MY, Glass ADM (2007) Dissection of the AtNRT2.1, AtNRT2.2 inducible high-affinity nitrate transporter gene cluster. Plant Physiol 143:425–433CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Li Y, Rong X, Fan Q, Shen R (2008) The relationship between rhizosphere nitrification and nitrogen-use efficiency in rice plants. Plant Cell Environ 31(1):73–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Li S, Qian Q, FU D, Meng DZ, Kyozuka J, Maekawa M, Zhu X, Zhang J, Wang LY (2009) Short Panicle 1encodes a putative PTR family transporter and determines rice panicle size. Plant J 58:592–605CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lijavetzky D, Carbonero P, Vicente-Carbajosa J (2003) Genome-wide comparative phylogenetic analysis of the rice and Arabidopsis Dof gene families. BMC Evol Biol 3:17CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lin CHM, Koh S, Stacey G, Yu SM, Lin TY, Tsay YF (2000) Cloning and functional characterization of a constitutively expressed nitrate transporter gene, OsNRT1, from rice. Plant Physiol 122:379–388CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Liu KH, Huang CY, Tsay YF (1999) CHL1 is a dual-affinity nitrate transporter of Arabidopsis involved in multiple phases of nitrate uptake. Plant Cell 11:865–874CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Loque D, Lalonde S, Looger LL, von Wiren N, Frommer WB (2007) A cytosolic trans-activation domain essential for ammonium uptake. Nature 446(7132):195–198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ludewig U, von Wiren N, Frommer WB (2002) Uniport of NH4+ by the root hair plasma membrane ammonium transporter LeAMT1;1. J Biol Chem 277(16):13548–13555CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mae T, Makino A, Ohira K (1983) Changes in the amounts of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase synthesized and degraded during the life span of a rice leaf (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Cell Physiol 24:1079–1086Google Scholar
  54. Malagoli P, Laine P, Deunff EL, Rossato L, Ney B, Ourry A (2004) Modeling nitrogen uptake in oil seed rape Cv. Capitol during a growth cycle using influx kinetics of root nitrate transport system and field experimental data. Plant Physiol 134(1):388–400CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Martin A, Lee J, Kichey T, Gerentes D, Zivy M, Tatout C, Dubois F, Balliau T, Valot B, Davanture M, Terce-Laforgue T, Quillere I, Coque M, Gallais A, Gonzalez-Moro M, Bethencourt L, Habash D, Lea P, Charcosset A, Perez P, Murigneux A, Sakakibara H, Edwards K, Hirel B (2006) Two cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoforms of maize are specifically involved in the control of grain production. Plant Cell 18:3252–3274CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Masclaux-Daubresse C, Reisdorf-Cren M, Orsel M (2008) Leaf nitrogen remobilisation for plant development and grain filling. Plant Biol 10(Suppl 1):23–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Meyer C, Stitt M (2001) Nitrate reduction and signaling. In: Morot-Gaudry JF, Lea PJ (eds) Plant nitrogen. Springer, Berlin, pp 37–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miflin B, Habash D (2002) The role of glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation and possibilities for improvement in the nitrogen utilization of crops. J Exp Bot 53:979–987CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Miller AJ, Smith SJ (1996) Nitrate transport and compartmentation in cereal root cells. J Exp Bot 47:843–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miller AJ, Fan X, Shen Q, Smith SJ (2008) Amino acids and nitrate as signals for the regulation of nitrogen acquisition. J Exp Bot 59(1):111–119CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Naohiro A, Tomohito E, Akira K, Tomomi A, Masataka W, Haruto S, Ryu O (2009) Genetic modification of nitrogen use efficiency in potato and rice by introducing fungal glutamate dehydrogenase, American Society of Plant Biologists. Plant Biol, 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii, Abs # P39004Google Scholar
  62. Obara M, Kajiura M, Fukuta Y et al (2001) Mapping of QTLs associated with cytosolic glutamine synthetase and NADH-glutamate synthase in rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Exp Bot 52:1209–1217CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Okamoto M, Kumar A, Li W, Wang Y, Sidiqi MY, Crawford NM, Glass AD (2006) High-affinity nitrate transport in roots of Arabidopsis depends on expression of the NAR2-like gene AtNRT3.1. Plant Physiol 142:1304–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Oliveira IC, Brears T, Knight TJ, Clark A, Coruzzi GM (2002) Overexpression of cytosolic glutamate synthetase, relation to nitrogen, light, and photorespiration. Plant Physiol 129:1170–1180CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Orsel M, Filleur S, Fraisier V, Daniel-Vedele F (2002) Nitrate transport in plants: which gene and which control? J Exp Bot 53(370):825–833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Orsel M, Eulenburg K, Krapp A, Daniel-Vedele F (2004) Disruption of the nitrate transporter genes AtNRT2.1 and AtNRT2.2 restricts growth at low external nitrate concentration. Planta 219:714–721CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Orsel M, Chopin F, Leleu O, Smith SJ, Krapp A, Daniel-Vedele F, Miller AJ (2006) Characterization of a two-component high-affinity nitrate uptake system in Arabidopsis: physiology and protein–protein interaction. Plant Physiol 142:1304–1317CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Ortega JL, Temple SJ, Sengupta-Gopalan C (2001) Constitutive overexpression of cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) gene in transgenic alfalfa demonstrates that GS1 be regulated at the level of RNA stability and protein turnover. Plant Physiol 126:109–121CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Peng J, Carol P, Richards DE, King KE, Cowling RJ, Murphy GP, Harberd NP (1997) The Arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses. Genes Dev 11:3194–3205CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Peng J, Richards DE, Hartley NM, Murphy GP, Devos KM, Flintham JE, Beales J, Fish LJ, Worland AJ, Pelica F et al (1999) ‘Green revolution’ genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators. Nature 400:256–261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Provan F, Aksland LM, Meyer C, Lillo C (2000) Deletion of the nitrate reductase N-terminal domain still allows binding of 14-3-3 proteins but affects their inhibitory properties. Plant Physiol 123:757–764CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Pysh LD, Wysocka-Diller JW, Camilleri C, Bouchez D, Benfey PN (1999) The GRAS gene family in Arabidopsis: sequence characterization and basic expression analysis of the SCARECROW-LIKE genes. Plant J 18:111–119CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Qu LJ, Zhu YX (2006) Transcription factor families in Arabidopsis: major progress and outstanding issues for future research. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:544–549CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Quaggiotti S, Ruperti B, Borsa P, Destro T, Malagoli M (2003) Expression of a putative high‐affinity NO3– transporter and of an H+−ATPase in relation to whole plant nitrate transport physiology in two maize genotypes differently responsive to low nitrogen availability. J Exp Bot 54(384):1023–1031CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rentsch D, Schmidt S, Tegeder M (2007) Transporters for uptake and allocation of organic nitrogen compounds in plants. FEBS Lett 581:2281–2289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Riechmann JL (2002) Transcriptional regulation: a genomic overview. In: Somerville CR, Meyerowitz EM (eds) The arabidopsis book. American Society of Plant Biologists, Rockville. doi: 10.1199/tab.0085, http://www.aspb.org/publications/arabidopsis/
  77. Riechmann JL, Ratcliffe OJ (2000) A genomic perspective on plant transcription factors. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:423–434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rolletschek H, Hosein F, Miranda M, Heim U, Götz KP, Schlereth A, Borisjuk L, Saalbach I, Wobus U, Weber H (2005) Ectopic expression of an amino acid transporter (VfAAP1) in seeds of Vicia narbonensis and pea increases storage proteins. Plant Physiol 137:1236–1249CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Salmeron J, Herrera-Estrella LR (2006) Fast-forward genomics for improved crop production. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:177–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schjoerring J, Kyllingsbaek A, Mortensen J, Byskov-Nielsen S (1993) Field investigations of ammonia exchange between barley plants and the atmosphere, I: concentration profiles and flux densities of ammonia. Plant Cell Environ 16:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shaw L (2009) The Dof transcription factor family in Triticum aestivum. PhD thesis, School of Biological Sciences, The University of QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  82. Shrawat AK, Carroll RT, DePauw M, Taylor GJ, Good AG (2008) Genetic engineering of improved nitrogen use efficiency in rice by the tissue-specific expression of alanine aminotransferase. J Plant Biotechnol 6(7):722–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Siddiqi MY, Glass ADM, Ruth TJ, Rufty TW Jr (1990) Studies of the uptake of nitrate in barley, I. Kinetics of I3NO3- influx. Plant Physiol 93:1426–1432CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Sonoda Y, Ikeda A, Saiki S, von Wiren N, Yamaya T, Yamaguchi J (2003) Distinct expression and function of three ammonium transporter genes (OsAMT1;1–1;3) in rice. Plant Cell Physiol 44(7):726–734CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sperandio MVL, Santos LA, de Araujo OJL, Braga RP, Coelho CP, Nogueira EM, Fernandes MS, de Souza SR (2014) Response of nitrate transporters and PM H+−ATPase expression to nitrogen flush on two upland rice varieties contrasting in nitrate uptake kinetics. Aust J Crop Sci 8(4):568–576Google Scholar
  86. Suenaga A, Moriya K, Sonoda Y, Ikeda A, von Wiren N, Hayakawa T et al (2003) Constitutive expression of a novel-type ammonium transporter OsAMT2 in rice plants. Plant Cell Physiol 44:206–211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Tilsner J, Kassner N, Struck C, Lohaus G (2005) Amino acid contents and transport in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under different nitrogen conditions. Planta 221:328–338CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Tong Y, Zhou JJ, Li Z, Miller AJ (2005) A two-component high-affinity nitrate uptake system in barley. Plant J 41:442–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Trevisan S, Borsa P, Botton A, Varotto S, Malagoli M, Ruperti B, Quaggiotti S (2008) Expression of two maize putative nitrate transporters in response to nitrate and sugar availability. Plant Biol (Stuttg) 10:462–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tsay YF, Chiu CC, Tsai CB, Ho CH, Hsu PK (2007) Nitrate transporters and peptide transporters. FEBS Lett 581:2290–2300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Vanlerberghe GC, Turpin DH (1990) Anaerobic metabolism in the N-limited green algae Selenastrum minutum, II. Assimilation of ammonium by anaerobic cells. Plant Physiol 94:1124–1130CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Walch-Liu P, Forde BG (2008) Nitrate signaling mediated by the NRT1.1 nitrate transporter antagonizes L-glutamate-induced changes in root architecture. Plant J 54(5):820–828. Epub 2008 Feb 7Google Scholar
  93. Wang Y-H, Garvin DF, Kochian LV (2001) Nitrate-induced genes in tomato roots Array analysis reveals novel genes that may play a role in nitrogen nutrition. Plant Physiol 127:345–359CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang R, Xing X, Wang Y, Tran A, Crawford NM (2009) A genetic screen for nitrate regulatory mutants captures the nitrate transporter gene NRT1.1. Plant Physiol 151(1):472–478CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Wirth J, Chopin F, Santoni V, Viennois G, Tillard P, Krapp A, Lejay L, Daniel-Vedele F, Gojon A (2007) Regulation of root nitrate uptake at the NRT2.1 protein level in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Biol Chem 282:23541–23552CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Yamaya T, Obara M, Nakajima H, Sasaki S, Hayakawa T, Sato T (2002) Genetic manipulation and quantitative-trait loci mapping for nitrogen recycling in rice. J Exp Bot 53:917–925CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Yan M, Fan X, Feng H, Miller AJ, Shen Q, Xu G (2011) Rice OsNAR2.1 interacts with OsNRT2.1, OsNRT2.2 and OsNRT2.3a nitrate transporters to provide uptake over high and low concentration ranges. Plant Cell Environ 34:1360–1372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Yanagisawa S (2001) Dof1 and Dof2 transcription factors are associated with expression of multiple genes involved in carbon metabolism in maize. Plant J 21:281–288. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yanagisawa S (2002) The Dof family of plant transcription factors. Trends Plant Sci 7(12):555–560CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Yanagisawa S, Akiyama A, Kisaka H, Uchimiya H, Miwa T (2004) Metabolic engineering with Dof1 transcription factor in plants: improved nitrogen assimilation and growth under low-nitrogen conditions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:7833–7838CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Yong Z, Kotur Z, Glass ADM (2010) Characterization of an intact two-component high-affinity nitrate transporter from Arabidopsis roots. Plant J 63:739–748CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Yuan L, Gu R, Xuan Y, Smith-Valle E, Loque D, Frommer WB, von Wiren N (2013) Allosteric regulation of transport activity by heterodimerisation of Arabidopsis ammonium transporter complexes in vivo. Plant Cell 25(3):974–984CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gyanendra Nath Mitra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil Science and Agricultural ChemistryOrissa University of Agriculture and TechnologyBhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations