Ocular Lesions in AIDS

  • Sudharshan Sridharan


On June 5, 1981, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced a cluster of five homosexual men in Los Angeles who had been hospitalized with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, and candidiasis, thus marking the start of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Another two patients were seen shortly thereafter, and these five patients constituted the first series to describe the ophthalmic manifestations of AIDS, which was published by the American Journal of Ophthalmology less than 1 year later [1]. The first report on ocular lesions in AIDS in India was published in 1995 [2]. Since those earliest days of the AIDS epidemic, ophthalmologists have played an important role in the care of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; the importance of eye disease is reflected in the fact that literally thousands of research articles and reviews have been published on CMV retinitis and other HIV-related ophthalmic disorders during the past 25 years.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Herpes Zoster Varicella Zoster Virus Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Holland GN, Gottlieb MS, Yee RD, et al. Ocular disorders associated with a new severe acquired cellular immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1982;93:393–402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Biswas J, Madhavan HN, Badrinath SS. Ocular lesions in AIDS: a report of first two cases in India. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1995;43:69–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hodge WG, Seif SR, Margolis TP. Ocular opportunistic infection incidences among patients who are HIV positive compared to patients who are HIV negative. Ophthalmology. 1998;105:895–900.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Biswas J, Madhavan HN, George AE, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S. Ocular lesions associated with HIV infection in India: a series of 100 consecutive patients evaluated at a referral center. Am J Ophthal. 2000;129:9–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holland GN, Vaudaux JD, Shiramizu KM, et al. Southern California HIV/Eye Consortium. Characteristics of untreated AIDS-related cytomegalovirus retinitis. II. Findings in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1997 to 2000). Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145(1):12–22.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Biswas J, Joseph AE, Raizada S, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S. Ophthalmic manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in India. Indian J Ophthal. 1999;47:87–93.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Biswas J, Deka S, Padmaja S, Madhavan HN, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S. Central retinal vein occlusion due to herpes zoster as the initial presenting sign in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS). Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2001;9:125–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldberg SH, Fieo AG, Wolz DE. Primary eyelid non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992;113:216–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basic and clinical science course. Intraocular inflammation and uveitis. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Intraocular inflammation and uveitis. In: Basic Clinical and Science Course. San Francisco, Calif: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2005–2006. p. 241–62.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Babu RB, Sudharshan S, Kumarasamy N, Therese KL, Biswas J. Ocular tuberculosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:413–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gopal L, Rao SK, Biswas J, Madhavan HN, Agarwal S. Tuberculous granuloma managed by full thickness eye wall resection. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:93–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kunavisarut P, Sirirungsi W, Pathanapitoon K. Clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-induced uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1455–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hennis HL, Scott AA, Apple DJ. Cytomegalovirus retinitis. Surv Ophthalmol. 1989;34:193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schuman JS, Orellana J, Friedman AH, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Surv Ophthalmol. 1987;31:384.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biswas J, Raizada S, Gopal L, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S. Bilateral frosted branch angiitis and cytomegalovirus retinitis in a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Indian J Ophthal. 1999;47:195–7.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Martin DF, Sierra Madero J, Walmsley S, et al. Valganciclovir Study Group. A controlled trial of valganciclovir as induction therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(15):1119–926.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jabs DA, Bolton SG, Dunn JP, et al. Discontinuing anticytomegalovirus therapy in patients with immune reconstitution after combination antiretroviral therapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;126:817.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vrabec TR. Posterior segment manifestations of HIV/AIDS. Surv Ophthalmol. 2004;49:131–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yoser SL, Forster DJ, Rao NA. Systemic viral infections and their retinal and choroidal manifestations. Surv Ophthalmol. 1993;37:313–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rao NA, Zimmerman PL, Boyer D, Biswas J, Causey D, Beniz J, Nichols PW. A clinical, histopathologic, and electron microscopic study of Pneumocystis carinii choroiditis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989;15(107):218–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schmid K, Wild T, Bolz M, Horvat R, Jurecka W, Zehetmayer M. Kaposi’s sarcoma of the conjunctiva leads to a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2003;81:411–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Corti M, Solari R, de Carolis L, Corraro R. Eye involvement in AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Enferm Infect Microbiol Clin. 2001;19:3–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rivero ME, Kuppermann BD, Wiley CA, Garcia CR, Smith MD, Dreilinger A, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related intraocular B-cell lymphoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;117:616–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lai TY, Wong RL, Luk FO, Chow VW, Chan CK, Lam DS. Ophthalmic manifestations and risk factors for mortality of HIV patients in the post-highly active anti-retroviral therapy era. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol. 2011;39(2):99–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lin YC, Yang CH, Lin CP, et al. Cytomegalovirus retinitis and immune recovery uveitis in AIDS patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Taiwanese. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2008;16(3):83–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kuppermann BD, Holland GN. Immune recovery uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;130(1):103–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Holland GN, Pepose JS, Pettit TH, Gottlieb MS, Yee RD, Foos RY. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ocular manifestations. Ophthalmology. 1983;90(8):859–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Magone MT, Nussenblatt RB, Whitcup SM. Elevation of laser flare photometry in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis and AIDS. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;124(2):190–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Karavellas MP, Plummer DJ, Macdonald JC, et al. Incidence of immune recovery vitritis in cytomegalovirus retinitis patients following institution of successful highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 1999;179(3):697–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Song MK, Azen SP, Buley A, et al. Effect of anti-cytomegalovirus therapy on the incidence of immune recovery uveitis in AIDS patients with healed cytomegalovirus retinitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136(4):696–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kempen JH, Min YI, Freeman WR, et al. Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS Research Group. Risk of immune recovery uveitis in patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(4):684–94.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nguyen QD, Kempen JH, Bolton SG, Dunn JP, Jabs DA. Immune recovery uveitis in patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129(5):634–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UveitisSankara NethralayaChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations