On June 5, 1981, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced a cluster of five homosexual men in Los Angeles who had been hospitalized with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, and candidiasis, thus marking the start of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Another two patients were seen shortly thereafter, and these five patients constituted the first series to describe the ophthalmic manifestations of AIDS, which was published by the American Journal of Ophthalmology less than 1 year later . The first report on ocular lesions in AIDS in India was published in 1995 . Since those earliest days of the AIDS epidemic, ophthalmologists have played an important role in the care of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; the importance of eye disease is reflected in the fact that literally thousands of research articles and reviews have been published on CMV retinitis and other HIV-related ophthalmic disorders during the past 25 years.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Herpes Zoster Varicella Zoster Virus Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
- 5.Holland GN, Vaudaux JD, Shiramizu KM, et al. Southern California HIV/Eye Consortium. Characteristics of untreated AIDS-related cytomegalovirus retinitis. II. Findings in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1997 to 2000). Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145(1):12–22.Google Scholar
- 6.Biswas J, Joseph AE, Raizada S, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S. Ophthalmic manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in India. Indian J Ophthal. 1999;47:87–93.Google Scholar
- 9.Basic and clinical science course. Intraocular inflammation and uveitis. American Academy of Ophthalmology. Intraocular inflammation and uveitis. In: Basic Clinical and Science Course. San Francisco, Calif: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2005–2006. p. 241–62.Google Scholar
- 15.Biswas J, Raizada S, Gopal L, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S. Bilateral frosted branch angiitis and cytomegalovirus retinitis in a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Indian J Ophthal. 1999;47:195–7.Google Scholar
- 16.Martin DF, Sierra Madero J, Walmsley S, et al. Valganciclovir Study Group. A controlled trial of valganciclovir as induction therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(15):1119–926.Google Scholar
- 31.Kempen JH, Min YI, Freeman WR, et al. Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS Research Group. Risk of immune recovery uveitis in patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(4):684–94.Google Scholar