Pediatric Uveitis


Uveitis in children differs in various noteworthy aspects from that in adults. In children, it is relatively rare with incidence and prevalence rates of 4.3–4.9/100,000 and 27.9/100,000 respectively [1, 2]. The incidence of uveitis seems to increase with age, and like in adults, causes can be divided in infectious and noninfectious origins. Most of the latter group are associated with systemic disease or thought to be immune modulated [3–12]. The etiology and anatomic distribution vary worldwide due to multiple factors such as endemic diseases and genetic factors [6, 7]. In 13–60 % of all uveitis in children, the cause remains unknown and this is referred to as idiopathic uveitis [2–12]. Difference must be made between uveitis with infectious origin and noninfectious cases because therapy differs between the two groups: in masquerade syndromes and infectious diseases, causal therapy is administered, whereas inflammation control through immunosuppressants is the main therapy for noninfectious uveitis. In general the etiologic background is similar to that in adults with the exception of the systemic underlying causes (Table 16.1). Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common underlying cause uveitis in the pediatric patients. Other systemic diseases observed in children with uveitis are, for instance, sarcoidosis and tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome [13]. In young children, Blau syndrome is a hereditary form of sarcoidosis characterized by rash, arthritis, and uveitis, which might clinically be difficult to distinguish from JIA [14]. TINU syndrome is a relatively rare condition characterized by tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis with a peak incidence at the age of 14 [13].


Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Cystoid Macular Edema Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Posterior Uveitis Secondary Glaucoma 
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© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.FC Donders Institute of OphthalmologyUniversity Medical CenterUtrechtThe Netherlands

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