Intraocular Tuberculosis

  • Arshee Ahmed
  • Jyotirmay Biswas


Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is an aerobic, rod-shaped, non-sporing bacteria. TB is characterized pathologically by the formation of caseating granulomas. Pulmonary involvement is the most common presentation, but extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) of the eye, meninges, pleura, pericardium, lymph nodes, urinary tract, peritoneum, etc. is known to occur.


Tuberculin Skin Test Drug Susceptibility Testing Retinal Vasculitis Fundus Fluorescein Angiography Intermediate Uveitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    TB INDIA 2012: Revised National TB Control Program – Annual Status Report. p. 7.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tuberculosis in the South-East Asia Region: The Regional Report: 2012. p. 4.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Foster CS, Vitale AT. Diagnosis and treatment of uveitis. Oxford: WB Saunders Co; 2001. p. 264–71.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Donahue HC. Ophthalmologic experience in a tuberculosis sanatorium. Am J Ophthalmol. 1967;64:742–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bouza E, Merino P, Munoz P, et al. Ocular tuberculosis: a prospective study in a general hospital. Medicine (Baltimore). 1997;76:53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beare NA, Kublin JG, Lewis DK, et al. Ocular disease in patients with tuberculosis and HIV presenting with fever in Africa. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:1076–9.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Biswas J, Narain S, Das D, Ganesh SK. Pattern of uveitis in a referral uveitis clinic in India. Int Ophthalmol. 1996–1997;20:223–228.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Morimura Y, Okada AA, Kawahara S, et al. Tuberculin skin testing in uveitis patients and treatment of presumed intraocular tuberculosis in Japan. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:851–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Islam SM, Tabbara KF. Causes of uveitis at The Eye Center in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective review. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2002;9:239–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rodriguez A, Calonge M, Pedroza-Seres M, et al. Referral pattern of uveitis in a tertiary eyecare center. Arch Ophtalmol. 1996;114:593–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Biswas J, Badrinath SS. Ocular morbidity in patients with active systemic tuberculosis. Int Ophthalmol. 1995–6;19:293–8.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Biswas J, Narain S, Das D, et al. Pattern of uveitis in a referral uveitis clinic in India. Int Ophthalmol. 1996–7;20:223–8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tabbara KF. Ocular tuberculosis: anterior segment. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2005;45:57–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Smith JR, Coster DJ. Diagnosing the systemic associations of anterior uveitis. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1998;26:319–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saricaoglu MS, Sengun A, Guven D, Karakurt A. Ocular tuberculosis with angle granuloma. Eye. 2004;18:219–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Duke-Elder S, Perkin ES. System of ophthalmology: diseases of the uveal tract, vol. 9. St Louis: CV Mosby; 1966.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Finnoff WC. The relation of tuberculosis to chronic uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1931;14:1208–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tabbara KF. Tuberculosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2007;18(6):493–501.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ness T, Virchow JC. Posterior uveitis: sarcoidosis or tuberculosis. Ophthalmologe. 2001;98:207–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Psilas K, Aspiotis M, Petroutsos G, et al. Antituberculosis therapy in the treatment of peripheral uveitis. Ann Ophthalmol. 1991;23:254–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Biswas J, Madhavan HN, Gopal L, et al. Intraocular tuberculosis. Clinicopathologic study of five cases. Retina. 1995;15:461–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarvananthan N, Wiselka M, Bibby K. Intraocular tuberculosis without detectable systemic infection. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116:1386–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Laatikainen L, Erkkila H. Serpiginous choroiditis. Br J OPhthalmol. 1974;58:777–83.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vasconcelos-Santos DV, Rao PK, Davies JB, et al. Clinical features of tuberculous serpiginouslike choroiditis in contrast to classic serpiginous choroiditis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:853–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Akpek EK, Jabs DA, Tessler HH, et al. Successful treatment of serpiginous choroiditis with alkylating agents. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:1506–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wroblewski KJ, Hidayat AA, Neafie RC, et al. Ocular tuberculosis: a clinicopathologic and molecular study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:772–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gupta V, Gupta A, Arora S, et al. Presumed tubercular serpiginous like choroiditis: clinical presentation and management. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:1744–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Biswas J, Sharma T, Gopal L, Madhavan HN, Sulochana KN, Ramakrishnan S. Eale’s disease- an update. Surv Ophthalmol. 2002;47:197–214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rai SP, Panda BN, Gurunath VS, Sahoo PK. Tubercular etiology in cases of retinal vasculitis. Ind J Tub. 2001;48:143.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mehta S, Gilada IS. Ocular tuberculosis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2005;13:87–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Perez Blazquez E, Montero Rodriguez M, Mendez Ramos MJ. Tuberculous choroiditis and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ann Ophthalmol. 1994;26:50–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Welton TH, Townsend JC, Bright DC. Presumed ocular tuberculosis in an AIDS patient. J Am Optom Assoc. 1996;67:350–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Muccioli C, Belfort Jr R. Presumed ocular and central nervous system tuberculosis in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121:217–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shimakawa M. Choroidal tuberculoma in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2000;44:697.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    DiLoreto Jr DA, Rao NA. Solitary nonreactive choroidal tuberculoma in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:138–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sheu SJ, Shyu JS, Chen LM, et al. Ocular manifestations of tuberculosis. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:1580–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Babu R, Sudharshan S, Therese L, Biswas J. Ocular tuberculosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:413–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mrejen S, Spaide RF. Optical coherence tomography: imaging of the choroid and beyond. Surv Ophthalmol. 2013;58(5):387–429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yeh S. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the white dot syndromes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128(1):46–56.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Centers for Disease Control. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000;49:1–54.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Centers for Disease Control. Screening for tuberculosis and tuberculous infection in high-risk populations and the use of preventive therapy for tuberculosis infections in the United States. Recommendations of the advisory council for the elimination of tuberculosis. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1990;39:1–12.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pai M, Kalantri S, Dheda K. New tools and emerging technologies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis: part I. Latent tuberculosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2006;6:413–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pai M, Riley LW, Colford JM. Interferon-gamma assays in the immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:761–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sudharshan S, et al. Utility of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold test in diagnosis and management of suspected tubercular uveitis in India. Int Ophthalmol. 2012;32(3):217–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sester M, Sotgiu G, Lange C, et al. Interferon-γ release assays for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respire J. 2011;37:100–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Abe C, Hirano K, Wada M, et al. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical specimens by polymerase chain reaction and Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31:3270–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Clarridge III JE, Shawar RM, Shinnick TM, et al. Large-scale use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a routine mycobacteriology laboratory. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31:2049–56.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wobeser WL, Krajden M, Conly J, et al. Evaluation of Roche Amplicor PCR assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:134–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sharma K, Gupta V, Bansal R, Sharma A, Sharma M, Gupta A. Novel multi-targeted polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of presumed tubercular uveitis. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2013;3(1):25.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ganesh SK, Roopleen, Biswas J, Veena N. Role of high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the chest in granulomatous uveitis: a tertiary uveitis clinic experience from India. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19(1):51–7.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Michael JS, John TJ. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in India: a review. Indian J Med Res. 2012;136:599–604.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bass Jr JB. Treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in adults and children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;149:1359–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sharma SK, Balamurugan A, Saha PK, et al. Evaluation of clinical and immunogenetic risk factors for the development of hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis treatment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166:916–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bothamley GH. Treatment, tuberculosis, and human leukocyte antigen (editorial). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166:907–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rosen PH, Spalton DJ, Graham EM. Intraocular tuberculosis. Eye. 1990;4(Pt 3):486–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Carr RE, Henkind P. Ocular manifestations of ethambutol. Arch Ophthalmol. 1962;67:566–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jimenez-Lucho VE, Busto RD, Odel J. Isoniazid and ethambutol as a cause of optic neuropathy. Eur J Respir Dis. 1987;71:42–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UveaSankara NethralayaChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Uveitis and Ocular Pathology departmentSankara NethralayaChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations