Controlled Breeding, Seed Production and Culture of Brackishwater Fishes
Aquaculture in marine/brackishwater ecosystems in coastal ponds, open sea cages and pens is assuming greater significance in recent years. Out of the total fish production of about 147 million tonnes, the contribution through culture has become half the mark, sharing annual increase between 8 and 10 %. Considering the capture fisheries’ stagnations and the growing demand for fish as animal protein source, aquaculture plays an important role in augmenting production. In India, the contribution through aquaculture is 80 % in the freshwater sector and around 160,000 tonnes through coastal aquaculture. Aquaculture has developed rapidly over the last three decades and has become an important growing industry for generating the revenue, providing employment and nutritional security for the millions of people. The ever-increasing population and the rising demand for animal protein are causing pressure on fishery development globally. Fish and fishery products contribute around 15 % of the animal protein supporting the nutritional security. In the global fish production, Asian countries occupy the top eight, where India stands second position after China. China has produced 70 % of the global production which formed 50 % in value, whereas India is a distant second with 5 % production and 4 % in value. The global average per capita consumption of fish is around 15 kg. The present average per capita consumption in India is around 9 kg. In countries like Japan and some of the Southeast Asian countries, the average per capita consumption is more than 100 kg. Reaching the global average of 15 kg, taking into consideration that 50 % of the Indian population will be fish consumers, by 2020 the domestic requirement itself will be in the order of 9 million tonnes. By 2020, the coastal aquaculture in India is expected to support the tune of around 350,000 tonnes, from the current production of around 150,000 tonnes. This implies that a quantum jump has to be made in the ensuing years. Out of this, shrimp is expected to contribute around 250,000 tonnes and the rest has to come through fishes and other nonconventional groups.
KeywordsNutritional Security Grey Mullet Cage Culture Earthen Pond Asian Seabass
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