Intensive Indoor and Outdoor Pilot-Scale Culture of Marine Copepods

  • Santhanam Perumal
  • S. Ananth
  • R. Nandakumar
  • T. Jayalakshmi
  • M. Kaviyarasan
  • Perumal Pachiappan


Copepods are more abundant than any other group of multicellular animals, including the hyper-abundant insects and nematodes. They consume phytoplankton and microorganisms, and they are in preyed upon by higher trophic levels, animals including fish and whales. In particular, they serve as primary prey for the larval stages of many fish species of economic importance. In aquaculture, copepods have been proven to be the much preferred and most adequate food for many marine fish larvae (Houde 1973; May et al. 1974; Kraul 1983, 1989, 1993) and are also used for the shrimp larvae (Shamsudin and Saad 1993). Good fish productivity of an aquatic ecosystem is related to the presence of copepods and their role as the main food component (May 1970; Bent 1993). The larvae of many marine fish require prey with size of about 50–100 μm wide at their first feeding stage (Detwyler and Houde 1970; Yufera and Pascual 1984). Even the rotifer of type “S” is too large in many cases (Houde 1973; May et al. 1974; Doi and Singhagraiwan 1993). The results concerning first feeding of commercially important fish on dry food organisms are encouraging (Fernandez-Dıaz and Yufera 1997; Cahu and Zambonino Infante 2001). However, live feeds cannot always be substituted because of biochemical and behavioural constraints of the fish larvae (Drillet et al. 2006).


Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acid Larval Rear Live Food Artemia Nauplius Marine Copepod 



The authors are thankful to the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Govt. of India, New Delhi, India, for financial support to establish marine copepods culture facility and authorities of Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, India, for the facilities provided.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santhanam Perumal
    • 1
  • S. Ananth
    • 1
  • R. Nandakumar
    • 1
  • T. Jayalakshmi
    • 1
  • M. Kaviyarasan
    • 1
  • Perumal Pachiappan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyPeriyar UniversitySalemIndia

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