Advertisement

Aquaculture Disease Diagnosis and Health Management

  • R. Ananda Raja
  • K. P. Jithendran

Abstract

Aquaculture is growing by leaps and bounds and is one of the world’s fastest-growing industries in food production. Unlike other terrestrial farm animals and plants, aquatic animals require more attention in order to monitor their health. They live in a complex and dynamic environment and are not readily visible except under tank-holding conditions. Similarly, feed consumption and mortalities are also equally well hidden under water (Bondad-Reantaso et al. 2001). So the problems faced by the aquatic animals are also species and system specific. The complexity of the aquatic ecosystem makes it difficult to understand the difference between health, suboptimal performance, and disease. The range of diseases found in aquaculture is one among the major problems faced by aquaculturists all over the world. Diseases in aquaculture are caused by the outcome of a series of linked events involving the interactions between the host, the environment, and the presence of a pathogen (Snieszko 1974). Environment includes not only the water and its components (such as oxygen, pH, temperature, toxins, and wastes) but also the kind of management practices (e.g., handling, drug treatments, transport procedures, etc.). There are three factors such as stocking density, innate susceptibility, and immunity which are particularly important in affecting host’s susceptibility to diseases. The intensive shrimp aquaculture has parallely brought disease problems leading to great economic loss. Diseases may be caused by a single or combinations of multifarious factors. Generally, diseases are broadly classified in to infectious and noninfectious. The former is caused either by virus, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or rickettsia, while the latter is due to environmental stresses, genetic factors, and nutritional deficiencies. The most important steps to reduce or prevent losses due to diseases in aquaculture are monitoring as regularly as possible and appropriate action at the first sign(s) of suspicious behavior, lesions, or mortalities. These fundamental approaches should be followed in many aquatic animal production sectors as in animal husbandry and agricultural production. Some farmers hesitate to reveal the disease problems due to their ignorance that it may result in failure in the competitive market price. It should be made understood that hiding or denying health problems can be as destructive to aquatic animals as it is elsewhere.

Keywords

Malachite Green Aquatic Animal Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Confirmatory Diagnosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ananda Raja R, Panigrahi A, Kumar S (2012) Epidemiological investigation of brackish water culture systems in West Bengal, India. J Appl Aquac 24:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ananda Raja R, Kumar S, Sundaray JK, De D, Biswas G, Ghoshal TK (2012) Hematological parameters in relation to sex, morphometric characters and incidence of white spot syndrome virus in tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798 from Sunderban, West Bengal. Indian J Fish 59:169–174Google Scholar
  3. Arcier JM, Herman F, Lightner DV, Redman RM, Mari J, Bonami JR (1999) A viral disease associated with mortalities in hatchery-reared post larvae of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Dis Aquat Org 38:177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell TA, Lightner DV (1988) A handbook of normal shrimp histology, Special publication no. 1. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, 114 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergmann SM, Kempter J, Sadowski J, Fichtner D (2006) First detection, confirmation and isolation of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Poland. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol 26:97–104Google Scholar
  6. Bondad-Reantaso MG, Mcgladdery SE, East I, Subasinghe RP (2001) Asia diagnostic guide to aquatic animal diseases, FAO fisheries technical paper 402, supplement 2. FAO, Rome, 240 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Bootland LM, Leong JC (1999) Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. In: Woo PTK, Bruno DW (eds) Fish diseases and disorders, vol 3: viral, bacterial and fungal infections. CAB International, Oxon, pp 57–121Google Scholar
  8. Bruno DW (1996) Cold water vibriosis caused by Vibrio salmonicida, Aquaculture information series no. 15. The Scottish Office Agriculture, Environment and Fisheries Department. Marine Laboratory, AberdeenGoogle Scholar
  9. Chantanachookin C, Boonyaratpalin S, Kasornchandra J, Direkbusarakom S, Aekpanithanpong U, Supamattaya K, Sriuraitana S, Flegel TW (1993) Histology and ultrastructure reveal a new granulosis-like virus in Penaeus monodon affected by yellow-head disease. Dis Aquat Org 17:145–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drinan EM (1985) Studies on the pathogenesis of furunculosis in salmonids. Ph.D. thesis, National University of Ireland, DublinGoogle Scholar
  11. Egerton RF (2005) Physical principles of electron microscopy. An introduction to TEM, SEM, and AEM. Springer, New York, 202 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Evensen Ø, Meier W, Wahli T, Olesen NJ, Jørgensen PEV, Håstein T (1994) Comparison of immunohistochemistry and virus cultivation for detection of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in experimentally infected rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Dis Aquat Org 20:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Flegel TW, Lightner DV, Lo CF, Owens L (2008) Shrimp disease control: past, present and future. In: Bondad-Reantaso MG, Mohan CV, Crumlish M, Subasinghe RP (eds) Diseases in Asian aquaculture VI. Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, pp 355–378, 505 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Haghighi Khiabanian Asl A, Azizzadeh M, Bandehpour M, Sharifnia Z, Kazemi B (2008) The first report of SVC from Indian carp species by PCR and histopathologic methods in Iran. Pak J Biol Sci 11:2675–2678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hasson KW, Lightner DV, Mohney LL, Redman RM, Poulos BT, White BL (1999) Taura syndrome virus (TSV) lesion development and the disease cycle in the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Dis Aquat Org 36:81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hsieh CY, Wu ZB, Tung MC, Tu C, Lo SP, Chang TC, Chang CD, Chen SC, Hsieh YC, Tsai SS (2006) In situ hybridization and RT-PCR detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), in Taiwan. J Fish Dis 29:665–671CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jung S, Miyazaki T, Miyata M, Danayadol Y, Tanaka S (1997) Pathogenicity of iridovirus from Japan and Thailand for the red sea bream Pagrus major in Japan, and histopathology of experimentally infected fish. Fish Sci 63:735–740Google Scholar
  18. Lester RJG, Doubrovsky A, Paynter JL, Sambhi SK, Atherton JG (1987) Light and electron microscope evidence of baculovirus infection in the prawn Penaeus plebejus. Dis Aquat Org 3:217–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lightner DV (1988) Diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp and prawns. In: Sindermann CJ, Lightner DV (eds) Disease diagnosis and control in North American marine aquaculture. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 8–127Google Scholar
  20. Lightner DV (1996) A handbook of shrimp pathology and diagnostic procedures for diseases of cultured Penaeid shrimp. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, 304 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Lightner DV, Redman RM, Hasson KW, Pantoja CR (1995) Taura syndrome in Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda): gross signs, histopathology and ultrastructure. Dis Aquat Org 21:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lightner DV, Pantoja CR, Poulos BT, Tang KFJ, Redman RM, Pasos De Andrade T, Bonami JR (2004) Infectious myonecrosis: new disease in Pacific white shrimp. Glob Aquac Advocate 7:85Google Scholar
  23. Melena J, Tomala J, Panchana F, Betancourt I, Gonzabay C, Sonnenholzner S, Amano Y, Bonami J-R (2012) Infectious muscle necrosis etiology in the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) cultured in Ecuador. Braz J Vet Pathol 5:31–36Google Scholar
  24. Momoyama K, Hiraoka M, Nakano H, Koube H, Inouye K, Oseko N (1994) Mass mortalities of cultured kuruma shrimp, Penaeus japonicus, in Japan in 1993: histopathological study. Fish Pathol 29:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morales-Covarrubias MS, Chavez-Sanchez MC (1999) Histopathological studies on wild broodstock of white shrimp Penaeus vannamei in the Platanitos area, adjacent to San Blas, Nayarit, Mexico. J World Aquac Soc 30:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Munday BL, Kwang J, Moody N (2002) Betanodavirus infections of teleost fish: a review. J Fish Dis 25:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Noga EJ (2010) Fish disease diagnosis and treatment, II edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, 519 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Poulos BT, Tang KFJ, Pantoja CR, Bonami JR, Lightner DV (2006) Purification and characterization of infectious myonecrosis virus of penaeid shrimp. J Gen Virol 87:987–996CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Promjai J, Boonsaeng V, Withyachumnarnkul B, Flegel TW (2002) Detection of hepatopancreatic parvovirus in Thai shrimp Penaeus monodon by in situ hybridization, dot blot hybridization and PCR amplification. Dis Aquat Org 51:227–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reddacliff LA, Whittington RJ (1996) Pathology of epizootic haematopoeitic necrosis virus (EHNV) infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) and redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). J Comp Pathol 115:103–115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Roberts RJ (2012) Fish pathology, IV edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, 590 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Snieszko SF (1974) The effects of environmental stress on outbreaks of infectious diseases of fishes. J Fish Biol 6:197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sritunyalucksana K, Apisawetakan S, Boon-nat A, Withyachumnarnkul B, Flegel TW (2006) A new RNA virus found in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from Thailand. Virus Res 118:31–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Vogt G (1992) Transformation of anterior midgut and hepatopancreas by monodon baculovirus (MBV) in Penaeus monodon postlarvae. Aquaculture 107:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wolf K (1988) Infectious hematopoietic necrosis. In: Fish viruses and fish viral diseases. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp 83–114Google Scholar
  36. Wongteerasupaya C, Vickers JE, Sriurairatana S, Nash GL, Akarajamorn A, Boonsaeng V, Panyim S, Tassanakajon A, Withyachumnarnkul B, Flegel TW (1995) A non-occluded, systemic baculovirus that occurs in cells of ectodermal and mesodermal origin and causes high mortality in the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. Dis Aquat Org 21:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Institute of Brackishwater AquacultureChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations