Concept of Stress and Its Mitigation in Aquaculture

  • Prem Kumar
  • Thirunavukkarasu A. R. 
  • R. Subburaj
  • G. Thiagarajan


Fishes are cold-blooded animals (ectothermic/poikilothermic) that cannot regulate their body temperature; hence, their physiological mechanisms are directly or indirectly temperature dependent. Some degree of thermoregulation is present in some fishes like tunas and Lamnidae sharks, in which the brain, eye and muscle temperature have been reported to be 2–12 °C higher than the ambient water temperature (Steven and Neil 1978). Hence, the temperature is one of the most important factors affecting the poikilothermic organisms.


Head Kidney Water Quality Management Ambient Water Temperature Aquaculture Practice General Adaptation Syndrome 
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Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prem Kumar
    • 1
  • Thirunavukkarasu A. R. 
    • 1
  • R. Subburaj
    • 1
  • G. Thiagarajan
    • 1
  1. 1.Fish Culture DivisionCentral Institute of Brackishwater AquacultureChennaiIndia

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