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Isolation and Culture of Microalgae

  • Perumal Pachiappan
  • B. Balaji Prasath
  • Santhanam Perumal
  • S. Ananth
  • A. Shenbaga Devi
  • S. Dinesh Kumar
  • S. Jeyanthi

Abstract

Marine microalgae or phytoplankton are the floating microscopic unicellular plants of the seawater which are generally free living, pelagic with the size range of 2–20 μm. The important components of microalgae are the diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, blue-green algae, and coccolithophores. Most microalgae have got immense value as they are rich sources of essential fatty acids, pigments, amino acids, and vitamins. They play a critical role in the coastal aquaculture of fish, molluscs, shrimps, and oysters, especially to meet the nutritional requirement of the larvae as well as for bioencapsulation. It is an established fact that the success of any hatchery operation mainly depends on the availability of the basic food, the phytoplankton. The maintenance and supply of the required species at appropriate time form a major problem being encountered by the algal culturists. The procedure for the phytoplankton culture involves aspects such as the isolation of the required species, preparation of the suitable culture media, and maintenance of the culture in the laboratory scale, as well as large scale under controlled conditions of light, temperature, and aeration, and their constant supply to the aqua farmers in different phases of growth. A culture may be defined as an artificial environment in which the microalgae grow. The culture of phytoplankton is an important aspect of planktonology, and the mass culture of phytoplankton is achieved under laboratory-controlled conditions and under field/outdoor conditions. Under laboratory conditions, sterilized or thoroughly cleaned containers are filled with filtered/sterilized seawater (28–34‰) and enriched with the addition of fertilizers, i.e., Guillard and Ryther’s F medium, Walne’s medium, or TMRL medium. The culture containers are inoculated with pure strains of the desired phytoplankton previously cultured in the laboratory. They are provided with heavy aeration and light using aerators and fluorescent bulbs respectively in a controlled laboratory with temperature of 25 ± 2 °C. The exponential growth phase is generally observed in 36 h to 3 days after inoculation. Cell density of 1.5–4.5 million cells per ml could be recorded. As a sufficient quantity of phytoplankton inoculums usually is present in the coarsely filtered seawater when the nutrients are added, a phytoplankton bloom develops in a course of few days under substantial sunlight. However, it happens sometimes that diatom bloom is inhibited by lack of sunlight or due to the nature of seawater in the tank. In such cases, the addition of new seawater and/or addition of ferric chloride in small amounts may stimulate instant resumption of the diatom in culture.

Keywords

Algal Species Stock Culture Culture Vessel Algal Culture Mass Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Perumal Pachiappan
    • 1
  • B. Balaji Prasath
    • 2
  • Santhanam Perumal
    • 2
  • S. Ananth
    • 2
  • A. Shenbaga Devi
    • 2
  • S. Dinesh Kumar
    • 2
  • S. Jeyanthi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyPeriyar UniversitySalemIndia
  2. 2.Department of Marine ScienceBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia

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