Advertisement

Value Addition of Non-timber Forest Products: Prospects, Constraints, and Mitigation

  • Sumit Chakravarty
  • Anju Puri
  • Mohit Subba
  • Tanusri Dey
  • Prakash Rai
  • Gopal Shukla
  • Nazir A. Pala
Chapter

Abstract

NTFPs are primary or supplemental source of livelihood mainly in the poor and developing nations. NTFPs contribute significantly to forest economy of developed and industrialized nations also. NTFPs can be processed or value added into consumer-oriented products. They have commercial importance and can contribute to the economic development of a region or a nation. Commercialization or value addition of NTFPs is now promoted as an approach to rural development especially in tropical forest areas. Unfortunately, commercialization of NTFPs has exploited and deprived the collectors. The chapter describes the prospects, constraints, and strategies to overcome these constraints of NTFP development and its value addition. The successful NTFP commercialization will be transparent, equitable, and sustainable which will have a positive impact on poverty reduction, gender equality, resource access, tenure, and management which demands aggressive policy interventions. The effective policy interventions can improve the stake of all stakeholders involved in NTFP from collection to value addition and ultimately improve collection, value addition, income, and livelihood without sacrificing the principles of sustainable forest conservation.

Keywords

Forest Resource Poverty Trap Postharvest Treatment Fiber Board Synthetic Substitute 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adedayo AG, Oyun MB, Kadeba O (2010) Access of rural women to forest resources and its impact on rural household welfare in North Central Nigeria. For Policy Econ 12:439–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adepoju AA, Salau AS (2007) Economic valuation of non-timber forest products. MPRA paper no. 2689. MPRA. Available in http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/2689/
  3. Alexander SJ (1999) Who, what, and why: the products, their use, and issues about management of non-timber forest products in the United States. In: Davidson-Hunt I, Duchesne LC, Zasada JC (eds) Forest communities in the third millennium: linking research, businesses, and policy toward a sustainable non-timber forest products sector. USDA Forest Service North Central Research Station, North Carolina, USA-217, pp 18–22Google Scholar
  4. Alexander SJ, McLain RJ, Blatner KA (2001) Socio-economic research on non-timber forest products in the Pacific Northwest. J Sustain For 13:95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander SJ, Weigand J, Blatner KA (2002) Non-timber forest product commerce. In: McLain RJ, Jones ET, Weigand J (eds) Non-timber forest products in the United States. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, pp 115–150Google Scholar
  6. Ambus L, Davis-Case D, Mitchell D, Tyler S (2007) Strength in diversity: market opportunities and benefits from small forest tenures. Br Columbia J Ecosyst Manage 8:88–99Google Scholar
  7. Anand N (1993) Factors having a bearing on the industrial utilization of medicinal plants for the production of plant based medicines. UNIDO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  8. Angelsen A, Wunder S (2003) Exploring the Forest Poverty Link: key concepts, issues and research implications, CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 40. CIFOR, BogorGoogle Scholar
  9. Anonymous (1954) Natural plant hydrocolloids, Advances in chemistry series 11. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. Anonymous (1975) Herbal pharmacology in Peoples Republic of China. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Anonymous (1986) Status report on prominent tree-borne oilseeds. Regional Research Lab, JammuGoogle Scholar
  12. Anonymous (1987) Documentation on forest and rights, vol I. National Center for Human Settlements and Environment, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  13. Anonymous (1989) Household food security and forestry: an analysis of socio-economic issues. FAO Community Forestry Note No. 1, RomeGoogle Scholar
  14. Anonymous (1990a) The major significance of minor forest product. The local use and value of forest in the West African humid forest zone. Community Forestry Note 6. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. Anonymous (1990b) The World Bank in the forest sector: a global policy paper. World Resources Institute. Wasteland News 8: 6–12Google Scholar
  16. Anonymous (1991a) Case studies in forest based small scale enterprises in Asia: rattan matchmaking and handicrafts. FAO Community Forestry Case Study No. 4, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  17. Anonymous (1991b) Woman’s role in dynamic forest based small scale enterprises: case studies on uppage and lacquerware from India. FAO Community Forestry Case Study No. 3. RomeGoogle Scholar
  18. Anonymous (1991c) Report of 2nd UNIDO workshop on essential oil industry, Manila, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  19. Anonymous (1991d) Design options for a polyvalent pilot plant for the distillation and extraction of medicinal and aromatic plants. UNIDO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  20. Anonymous (1992) Role of NTFP in forest fringe dweller’s economy and current status of forest flora: a case study at Raigarh Forest Protection Committee under Bankura South Division. Ford Foundation Project Report. Rama Krishna Mission Lokashiksha Parishad, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  21. Anonymous (1994) Development programmes on the industrial utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants. UNIDO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  22. Anonymous (2000) The gum collectors: struggling to survive in the dry areas of Banaskantha. Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), AhmadabadGoogle Scholar
  23. Anonymous (2001) Sustainable management of non-timber forest resources. CBD Technical Series No. 6, Secretariat of the convention on biological Diversity, Montreal, Canada, 30pGoogle Scholar
  24. Anonymous (2011) National report on sustainable forests-2010. FS-979. USDA Forest Service, Washington Office, Washington, DC, 214pGoogle Scholar
  25. Antypas A, McLain RJ, Gilden J et al (2002) Federal non-timber forest products policy and management. In: McLain RJ, Jones ET, Weigand J (eds) Non-timber forest products in the United States. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, pp 347–374Google Scholar
  26. Appasamy P (1993) Role of non-timber forest products in a subsistence economy: the case of a joint forestry project in India. Econ Bot 47:258–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Arnetz F (1993) Non-timber products: their sustainable development of tropical forests. Trop For Manag Update 3(2):3–7Google Scholar
  28. Arnold JEM (1995) Poverty and conservation. Society and non-timber forest products in tropical Asia, Occasional Paper No. 19. East West Center, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  29. Arnold JEM (2002) Clarifying the links between forests and poverty reduction. Int For Rev 4:231–234Google Scholar
  30. Arnold JEM, Ruiz Perez M (1998) The role of non-timber forest products in conservation and development. In: Wollenberg E, Ingles A (eds) Incomes from the forest: methods for the development and conservation of forest products for local communities. CIFOR/IUCN, Bogor, pp 17–42Google Scholar
  31. Arora D (2008) California porcini: the new taxa, observations on their harvest, and the tragedy of no commons. Econ Bot 62:356–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Atal CK, Kapoor BM (1982a) Cultivation and utilization of medicinal plants, Part I. Regional Research Laboratory, JammuGoogle Scholar
  33. Atal CK, Kapoor BM (1982b) Cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants, Part II. Regional Research Laboratory, JammuGoogle Scholar
  34. Bailey B (1999) Social and economic impacts of wild-harvested products. PhD dissertation, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 103pGoogle Scholar
  35. Balick MJ (1979) Amazonian oil palms of promise: a survey. Econ Bot 33:142–128Google Scholar
  36. Banana AY (1996) Non-timber forest products marketing: field testing of the marketing information system methodology. In: Leakey RRB, Temu AB, Melnyk M, Vantomme P (eds) Domestication and commercialization of non-timber forest products in agroforestry systems. FAO, Rome, pp 218–225Google Scholar
  37. Bawa KS, Godoy R (1993) Introduction to case studies from South Asia. Econ Bot 47:248–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Belcher BM (2003) What isn’t an NTFP? Int For Rev 5:161–168Google Scholar
  39. Belcher BM, Ruiz-Perez M, Achdiawan R (2003) Global patterns and trends in NTFP development. Paper presented to the international conference on rural livelihoods, forests and biodiversity, Bonn, Germany, 19–23 MayGoogle Scholar
  40. Beohar B (2003) Marketing of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) in Mandla tribal district of Madhya Pradesh. Indian J Agric Mark 17:66Google Scholar
  41. Bielenber C (1993) Feasibility of Jatropha oil as a substitute for diesel fuel in male. Appropriate Technology International, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  42. Bih F (2006) Assessment methods for non-timber forest products in off-reserve forests: case study of Goaso district, Ghana. PhD dissertation, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Freiburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  43. Boyd D, Ellison N (2007) Social network sites: definition, history and scholarship. J Comput Med Commun 13:11Google Scholar
  44. Browder JO (1992) Social and economic constraints on the development of market-oriented extractive reserves in Amazon rain forests. In: Nepstad DC, Schwartzman S (eds) Non-timber forest products from tropical forests. The New York Botanical Gardens, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Brown K, Lapuyade S (2001) A livelihood from the forest: gendered visions of social, economic and environmental change in Southern Cameroon. J Int Dev 13:1131–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Brown D, Williams A (2003) The case for bushmeat as a component of development policy: issues and challenges. Int For Rev 5:148–155Google Scholar
  47. Burkhart EP, Jacobson MG (2009) Transitioning from wild collection to forest cultivation of indigenous medicinal forest plants in eastern North America is constrained by lack of profitability. Agrofor Syst 76:437–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Butler BJ (2008) Family forest owners of the United States, 2006. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NRS-27, North Research Station, Newton Square, PA, 72pGoogle Scholar
  49. Byron N, Arnold JEM (1999) What futures for the people of the tropical forests? World Dev 27:789–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Campbell JY, Tewari DD (1995) Increased development of non-timber forest products in India: some issues and concerns. J Sustain For 3:53–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Carr M (2008) Gender and non-timber forest products: promoting food security and economic development. International Fund for Agricultural Development, RomeGoogle Scholar
  52. Cavendish W (1989) Rural livelihoods and non-timber forest products. Paper presented at CIFOR workshop on the contribution of non-timber forest products to socio-economic development, Zimbabwe, OctoberGoogle Scholar
  53. Chabala C (2004) Forest management in Zambia: a focus on women’s access to forest resources management in Chief Chiwala’s area, Masaiti district. Master’s thesis, Southern African Regional Center for Women’s Law, University of Zimbabwe, HarareGoogle Scholar
  54. Chamberlain JL (2002) The management of national forests of Eastern United States for non-timber forest products. PhD dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 250pGoogle Scholar
  55. Chamberlain JL, Bush RJ, Hammett AL (1998) Non-timber forest products: the other forest products. For Prod J 48:2–12Google Scholar
  56. Chamberlain JL, Bush RJ, Hammett AL et al (2002) Eastern national forests: managing for non-timber products. J For 100:8–14Google Scholar
  57. Chamberlain JL, Mitchell D, Brigham T et al (2009) Forest farming practices. In: Garrett HE (ed) North American agroforestry: an integrated science and practice, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 219–255Google Scholar
  58. Chambers R, Saxena NC, Tushar S (1990) To the hands of the poor: water and trees. Oxford & IBH Publishing, New Delhi, 273pGoogle Scholar
  59. Charlie S, Sheona S (2004) The importance of non-timber forest products in rural livelihood security and as safety nets: a review of evidence from South Africa. S Afr J Sci 100:588–664Google Scholar
  60. Charnley S, Fischer AP, Jones ET (2007) Integrating traditional and local ecological knowledge into forest biodiversity conservation in the Pacific Northwest. For Ecol Manage 246:14–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Chaudhry DC (1993) Agarwood from Aquilaria malaccensis. Minor Forest Products News 3(4), CMFP, ICFRE, Dehra Dun, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  62. Chawla JS (1987) Utilization of forest and agro-industrial residues. Holzforschung Holzverwerchung 39:121–125Google Scholar
  63. Chege N (1994) Africa’s non-timber forest economy. World Watch, Washington, DC, pp 19–23Google Scholar
  64. Chopra K (1993) The value of non-timber forest products: an estimation for tropical deciduous forests in India. Econ Bot 47:251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Chowdhuri MK, Chakraborty SM, Mukherjee AK (1992) Utilization of forest produces- a study among forest dwellers. Bull Cult Res Inst 18:44–47Google Scholar
  66. Cooks ML, Wiersum KF (2003) The significance of plant diversity to rural household in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. For Trees Livelihood 13:39–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Costanza R, Folke C (1997) Valuing ecosystem services with efficiency, fairness and sustainability as goals. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 49–68Google Scholar
  68. de Beer JH, McDermott MJ (1989) Economic value of non-timber forest products in Southeast Asia with emphasis on Indonesia. Malaysia and Thailand. Netherland Committee for the IUCN, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  69. De Silva KTD (1982) Development of drugs from plants. Proc Sri Lanka Assoc Adv Sci 38:55–71Google Scholar
  70. De Silva KTD (1993) UNIDO development programmes on industrial utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants. Acta Horticult 333:47–54Google Scholar
  71. De Silva T, Atal CK (1995) Processing, refinement and value addition of non-wood forest products. Available in http://www.fao.org/docrep/v7540e/V7540e19.htm
  72. Dix ME, Hill DB, Buck LE et al (1997) Forest farming: an agroforestry practice. National Agroforestry Center, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Station, Vancouver, 7pGoogle Scholar
  73. Dove M (1993) A revisionist view of tropical deforestation and development. Environ Conserv 20:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Dubois O (2003) Forest based poverty reduction: a brief review of facts, figures challenges and possible way forward. In: Oksanen T, Pajari B, Tuomasjukka T (eds) Forests in poverty reduction strategy: capturing the potential. EFI proceeding no. 47, Finland, pp 65–85Google Scholar
  75. Duke JA (1981) Handbook of the legumes of world economic importance. Plenum Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Duryea ML (1988) Alternative enterprises for your forest land: forest grazing, Christmas trees, hunting leases, pine straw, fee fishing, and fire wood. Circular 810, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 30pGoogle Scholar
  77. Dwivedi AP (1993) Forests: the non-wood resources. International Book Distributors, Dehra DunGoogle Scholar
  78. Edwards DM (1994) Non-timber forest products and community forestry. Project report G/NUKCFP/12, 36pGoogle Scholar
  79. Edwards DM (1996a) Non-timber forest products from Nepal: aspects of the trade in medicinal and aromatic plants. FORESC monograph 1/96, 141pGoogle Scholar
  80. Edwards DM (1996b) Non-timber forest products and community forestry: are they compatible? Banko Jankari 6:3–8Google Scholar
  81. Edwards DM (1996c) The trade in non-timber forest products in from Nepal. Mt Res Dev 16:383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Elias M, Carney J (2007) African Shea butter: a feminized subsidy from nature. Africa 77:37–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Elmhirst R, Resurreccion BP (2008) Gender, environment and natural resource management: new dimensions, new debates. In: Resurreccion BP, Elmhirst R (eds) Gender and natural resource management: livelihoods, mobility and interventions. Earthscan, SterlingGoogle Scholar
  84. Emery M (1996) Livelihood diversity: non-timber forest products in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  85. Emery MR (1998a) Seeing, gathering, managing special forest products and public land management. In: Proceedings of special forest product: working together in a changing world. Western Forestry & Conservation Association, Portland, Oregon, 31pGoogle Scholar
  86. Emery MR (1998b) Invisible livelihoods: non-timber forest products in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. PhD dissertation, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 291pGoogle Scholar
  87. Emery MR (2001) Gatherers, practices and livelihood roles of non-timber forest products. Non-timber forest products, Fact sheet no. 6, 5pGoogle Scholar
  88. Emery MR (2002) Space outside the market: implications of NTFP certification for substance use (US). In: Shanley P, Pierce AR, Laird SA, Guillen A (eds) Tapping the green market: certification and management of non-timber forest products. Earthscan Publishing Ltd, Sterling, pp 302–312Google Scholar
  89. Emery M, O’halek SL (2001) Brief overview of historical non-timber forest product use in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Upper Midwest. J Sustain For 1:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Emery MR, Pierce AR (2005) Interrupting the Telos: locating subsistence in contemporary US forests. Environ Plan 37:981–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Emery MR, Ginger C, Newman S et al (2002) Special forest products in context: gatherers and gathering in the Eastern United States, GTR-NE-306. USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, 59pGoogle Scholar
  92. Emery MR, Martin S, Dyke A (2006) Wild harvests from Scottish woodlands: social, cultural and economic values of contemporary non-timber forest products. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh, 40pGoogle Scholar
  93. Escobal J, Aldana U (2003) Are non-timber forest products the antidote to rainforest degradation? Brazil nut extraction in Madre De Dios, Peru. World Dev 31:1873–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Esplen E, Brody A (2007) Putting gender back in the picture: rethinking women’s economic empowerment. BRIDGE (development-gender). University of Sussex, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  95. Everett Y (1996a) Building capacity for non-timber forest products in the Trinity Bioregion: lessons drawn from international models. Rural Development Forestry Network Paper 20a, 13pGoogle Scholar
  96. Everett Y (1996b) Research and activities focused on non-timber forest products in the Hayfork AMA. Watershed Research and Training Center, USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  97. Falconer J (1990) The major significance of “minor” forest products: examples from West Africa. Appropr Technol 17:13–16Google Scholar
  98. Falconer J, Arnold JEM (1989) Household food security and forestry: an analysis of socio-economic issues, Community Forestry note 1. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  99. Fearnside PM (1989) Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia: an opportunity to maintain tropical rain forest under sustainable use. Bioscience 39:387–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Finholt T, Sproull L, Keisler S (1990) Communication and performance in ad hoc task groups. In: Galegher J, Kraut R, Egido C (eds) Intellectual team work: social and technological foundations of cooperative work. Lawrence Erlbaum Association, Hillsdale, pp 291–325Google Scholar
  101. Foster S (1995) Forest pharmacy: medicinal plants in American forest. Forest History Society, Durham, 57pGoogle Scholar
  102. Fox J (1994) Introduction: society and non-timber forest products in Asia. Soc Nat Resour 8:189–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ganesan B (1993) Extraction of non-timber forest products, including fodder and fuelwood in Mudumalai, India. Econ Bot 47:268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gausset Q, Yago-Quattara EL, Belem B (2005) Gender and trees in Peni, South-Western Burkina Faso. Women’s need, strategies and challenges. Dan J Geogr 105:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gautam KH, Watannabe T (2002) Silviculture for non-timber forest product management: challenges and opportunities for sustainable forest management. For Chronicles 78:828–830Google Scholar
  106. Gbadebo JO, Gloria U (1999) The non-wood forest products of Nigeria. A report produced as output of the EC-FAO partnership program (1998–2000) – project gcp/int/679/ecGoogle Scholar
  107. George W (1966) The commercial products of India. Today and Tomorrow Printers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  108. Ghosal S (2011) Importance of non-timber forest products in native household economy. J Geogr Reg Plan 4:159–168Google Scholar
  109. Godin VJ, Spensley PC (1971) Oils and oils seeds. Tropical Products Institute, LondonGoogle Scholar
  110. Godoy RA, Bawa KS (1993) The economic value and sustainable harvest of plants and animals from the tropical forest: assumptions, hypotheses and methods. Econ Bot 47:215–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Godoy RA, Wilkie D, Overman H et al (2000) Valuation of consumption and sale of forest goods from a Central American rain forest. Nature 406:62–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Gold MA, Godsey LD, Josiah SJ (2004) Markets and marketing strategies for agroforestry specialty products in North America. In: Nair PK, Rao MR, Buck LE (eds) New vistas in agroforestry: a compendium for the 1st World Congress of Agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 371–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Goldberg C (1996) From necessity, new forest industry rises. The New York Times: national report, March, 12pGoogle Scholar
  114. Grainge M, Ahmed S (1986) Potential of neem tree for pest control and rural development. Econ Bot 40:2201–2209Google Scholar
  115. Greene SH, Hammett AL, Kant S (2000) Non-timber products marketing systems and market players in Southwest Virginia: crafts, medicinal and herbal and specialty wood products. J Sustain For 11:19–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Greenfield J, Davis J (2003) Collection to commerce: Western North Carolina non-timber forest products and their markets. A report to the USDA Forest Service, 104pGoogle Scholar
  117. Gunatilake HM, Senaratne AH, Abeygunawardena P (1993) Role of non-timber forest products in the economy of peripheral communities of knuckles national wilderness area of Sri Lanka: a farming systems approach. Econ Bot 47:275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Gupta T, Guleria A (1992) Non-wood forest products in India. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  119. Gupta R, Banerji P, Guleria A (1982) Tribal unrest and forestry management in Bihar, CMA monograph no. 98. Indian Institute of Management, Ahmadabad, 88pGoogle Scholar
  120. Hammett AL, Chamberlain J (1997) Sustainable development of non-timber forest products: a case study in Southwest Virginia. In: Proceedings of Forest Products Society annual meeting, Vancouver, British ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  121. Hammett AL, Chamberlain JL (1998) Sustainable use of non-traditional forest product. Alternative forest based income opportunities. In: Jonathan SK (ed) Natural resources income opportunities on private land conference. Publication Division, University of Maryland, Hagerstown, pp 141–147Google Scholar
  122. Harper RA, McClure ND, Johnson TG et al (2009) Georgia’s forests, 2004. Resource Bulletin SRS-149, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, 78pGoogle Scholar
  123. Hasalkar S, Jadhav V (2004) Role of women in the use of non-timber forest produce: a review. J Soc Sci 8:203–206Google Scholar
  124. Hegde R, Suryaprakash S, Achoth L et al (1996) Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forests of Biligiri Rangan Hills, India. 1. Contribution to rural income. Econ Bot 50:244–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Hertog WD (1995) Trees and people in balance: forest utilization in Salyan district. SNV, NepalGoogle Scholar
  126. Hill AF (1951) Economic botany. McGraw Hill Book Co., Ltd., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  127. Homma (AKO) 1992 The dynamics of extraction in Amazonia: a historical perspective. In: Nepstad DC, Schwartzman S (eds) Non-timber forest products from tropical forests: evaluation of a conservation and development strategy. Advances in economic botany, vol 9. New York Botanical Garden, New York, pp 23–32Google Scholar
  128. Humphrey FR (1964) Occurrence and industrial production of Rutin in S. E. Australia. Econ Bot 18:195–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ikram H (1978) Compendium of medicinal plants. Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, KarachiGoogle Scholar
  130. Jahnige P (2002) The hidden bounty of the urban forest. In: McLain RJ, Jones ET, Weigand J (eds) Non-timber forest products in the United States. University of Kansan Press, Lawrence, pp 96–107Google Scholar
  131. Jones ET, Lynch K (2002) The relevance of sociocultural variables to non-timber forest product research, policy, and management. In: McLain RJ, Jones ET, Weigand J (eds) Non-timber forest products in the United States. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, pp 26–51Google Scholar
  132. Kabra KN (1983) Dependence and dominance. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  133. Kalu C, Rachael E (2006) Women in processing and marketing of non-timber forest products: case study of Benin City, Nigeria. J Agron 5:326–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kant S (1997) Integration of biodiversity conservation and economic development of local communities. J Sustain For 4:33–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kant S, Nautiyal JC, Berry RA (1996) Forests and economic welfare. J Econ Stud 23:31–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kaplinsky R, Morris M (2000) A handbook for value chain research. IDRC, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  137. Kaplinsky R, Morris M (2001) A handbook for value chain research. Report prepared for IDRCGoogle Scholar
  138. Karki S (1996) Investigating non-timber forestry products opportunities in Nepal. Nepal Australia Community Forestry Project, 16pGoogle Scholar
  139. Kassa H, Tafera B, Fitwi G (2011) Preliminary value chain analysis of gums and resins marketing in Ethiopia: issues for policy and research. Policy Brief. CIFOR, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  140. Kays JS (2004) Alternative income opportunities: needs of county agents and foresters in the mid-Atlantic region. J Ext 42:2RIB6Google Scholar
  141. Kelly EC, Bliss JC (2009) Healthy forests, healthy communities: an emerging paradigm for natural resource-dependent communities? Soc Nat Resour 22:519–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Kerns BK, Liegel L, Pilz D et al (2002) Biological inventory and monitoring. In: McLain RJ, Jones ET, Weigand J (eds) Non-timber forest products in the United States. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, pp 237–272Google Scholar
  143. Khare A, Rao AVR (1993) Products of social forestry: issues, strategies and priorities. Wasteland News 6:7–17Google Scholar
  144. Lemenih M, Kassa H (2010a) Opportunities and challenges for the production and marketing of gums and resins in Ethiopia. Working Paper, CIFOR, Bogor, 88pGoogle Scholar
  145. Lemenih M, Kassa H (2010b) Socio-economic and environmental significance of dry land resources of Ethiopia and their development challenges. J Agric Dev 1:71–91Google Scholar
  146. Lemenih M, Abebe T, Olsson M (2003) Gum-resins from some Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora species and their economic contributions in Liban zone, Ethiopia. J Arid Environ 55:465–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Letchworth B (2001) An industry of wildcrafting, gathering and harvesting NTFPs: an insider’s perspective. In: Davidson-Hunt I, Duchesne LC, Zasada JC (eds) Forest communities in the third millennium: linking research, business and policy toward a sustainable non-timber forest products sector, GTR-NC-217. USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, Newtown Square, pp 128–132Google Scholar
  148. Love TJ, Jones ET (1997) Grounds for argument local understandings, science and global processes. In: Special forest products harvesting. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report, pp 163–185Google Scholar
  149. Love TJ, Jones ET (2001) Why is non-timber forest product harvest an ‘issue’? J Sustain For 13:105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Love TJ, Jones ET, Liegel L (1998) Valuing the temperate rainforest: wild mushrooming on the Olympic Peninsula Biosphere Reserve. Ambio Spec Rep 9:16–33Google Scholar
  151. Lynch OJ (1992) Securing community based tenurial rights in the tropical forests of Asia. Issues in development, Report WRI, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  152. Lynch KA (2004) Workshop guide and proceedings: harvester participation in inventory and monitoring of non-timber forest products. National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry, Washington, DC, 151pGoogle Scholar
  153. Lynch KA, McLain RJ (2003) Access, labor and wild floral greens management in Western Washington’s forests. USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station. GTR-PNW-585, 61pGoogle Scholar
  154. Lynch KA, Jones ET, McLain RJ (2004) Non-timber forest product inventorying in the United States: rationale and recommendations for a participatory approach. Institute for Culture and Ecology, Portland, 50pGoogle Scholar
  155. Maharjan MR (1994) Chiraito cultivation in community forestry. Project report B/NUKCFP/13Google Scholar
  156. Malhotra KC (1992) Joint forestry in West Bengal. Paper presented at a seminar on forests for economic development and recreation. Maxmueller Bhavan, MadrasGoogle Scholar
  157. Malhotra KC, Deb D, Dutta M et al (1991) Role of non-timber forest products in village economy: a household survey in Jamboni Range, Midnapore, West Bengal. Indian Institute of Bio-social Research and Development, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  158. Malhotra KC, Deb D, Dutta M, Vasulu TS et al (1992) Role of non-timber forest produce in village economy. Indian Institute Bio-social Research and Development (IBRAD), KolkataGoogle Scholar
  159. Malla SB, Shakya PR, Rajbjandari KR et al (1995) Minor forest products of Nepal: general status and trade. Forest Resource Information System Project Paper no. 4. Forestry Sector Institutional Strengthening Program, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation Kathmandu, Nepal. HMGN/FINNIDA, 27pGoogle Scholar
  160. Mallik RM (2001) Commercialization of NTFPs in Orissa: economic deprivation and benefits to primary collectors. Paper presented at South and East Asian Countries NTFP Network (SEANN) Workshop on NTFPs and biodiversity: SEANN Agenda for conservation and development in the 21st century, Manila, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar
  161. Mantell CL (1949) The water soluble gums: their botany, sources and utilization. Econ Bot 3:3–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Marshall E, Schreckenberg K, Newton AC (eds) (2006) Commercialization of non-timber forest products: factors influencing success. Lessons learned from Mexico and Bolivia and policy implications for decision-makers. UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  163. Martin G (1921) Perfumes, essential oils and fruit essences. Technical Press, Ludgate HillGoogle Scholar
  164. Mater C (1993) Minnesota special forest products. Minnesota Department of Natural resources, Forestry Division, IrontonGoogle Scholar
  165. May PM (1991) Building institutions and markets for non-wood forest products from Brazilian Amazon. Unasylva 42:9–16Google Scholar
  166. McLain RJ (2000) Controlling the forest understory: wild mushroom politics in central Oregon. PhD dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 468pGoogle Scholar
  167. McLain RJ (2008) Constructing a wild mushroom panopticon: the extension of nation-state control over the forest understory in Oregon, USA. Econ Bot 62:343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. McLain RJ, Jones ET (1997) Challenging “community” definitions in sustainable natural resource management: the case of wild mushroom harvesting in the USA, Gatekeeper Series No. 68. International Institute for Environment and Development. Sustainable Agriculture Programme, Portland, 16pGoogle Scholar
  169. McLain RJ, Jones ET (2001) Expanding non-timber forest product harvester/buyer participation IN Pacific Northwest policy. In: Emery MR, McLain RJ (eds) Non-timber forest products: medicinal herbs, fungi, edible fruits and nuts and other natural products from the forest. Food Products Press, New York, pp 141–161Google Scholar
  170. Mclain RJ, Jones ET (2005) Non-timber forest products management on national forests in the United States, GTR-PNW-655. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, 85pGoogle Scholar
  171. McLain RJ, McFarlane EM, Alexander SJ (2005) Commercial morel harvesters and buyers in Western Montana: an exploratory study of the 2001 harvesting season, GTR-PNW-643. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, 38pGoogle Scholar
  172. McLain RJ, Alexander S, Jones ET (2008) Incorporating understanding of informal economic activity in natural resource and economic development policy, GTR-PNW-755. USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, 53pGoogle Scholar
  173. McSweeney K (2004) Forest product sale as natural insurance: the effects of household characteristics and the nature of shock in eastern Honduras. Soc Nat Resour 17:39–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Merlo M, Milocco E, Panting R et al (2000) Transformation of environmental recreational goods and services provided by forestry into recreational environment products. For Policy Econ 1:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Mickels-Kokwe G (2006) Small-scale woodland-based enterprise with outstanding economic potential: the case of honey in Zambia. CIFOR, Bogor, 82pGoogle Scholar
  176. Mishra M, Surayya T, Mishra R (2002) Sustainable harvesting, value addition and marketing of selected non-timber forest products: a case study of Koraput and Malkangiri districts, Orissa state. RCNAEB, BhopalGoogle Scholar
  177. Mitchell DA (2009) NTFP, tourism and small scale forestry: income opportunities and constraints. British Columbia Ministry for Range, Forestry Science Program and Center for Non-Timber Resources, Royal Roads University, Victoria. Land management handbook 63. www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Lmh/Lmh63.htm
  178. Morse R (2003) Preface. In: Proceedings of Hidden forest values: the first Alaska-side non-timber forest products conference and tour, Alaska Boreal Forest Council, comps. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station General Technical Report. GTR-PNW-579, Portland, p ii, 150pGoogle Scholar
  179. Morsello C (2004) Trade deals between corporations and Amazonian forest communities under common property regimes: opportunities, problems and challenges. In: Proceedings of 10th biennial conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP), the commons in an age of global transition: challenges, risks and opportunities, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Oaxaca, Mexico, 9–13 August 2004Google Scholar
  180. Mugedo JZ, Waterman PG (1992) Sources of tannins. Econ Bot 46:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Muir PS, Norman KN, Sikes KG (2006) Quantity and value of commercial moss harvest from forests of the Pacific Northwest and Appalachian regions of the US. Bryologist 109:197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Mukherjee AK (1994) India’s forests: a status report: concepts, definitions, trends, controversies. Paper presented at the international workshop on India’s forests management and ecological revival, New Delhi, 10–12 FebruaryGoogle Scholar
  183. Mulenga AM, Chizhuka F (2003) Industry profile of honey in Zambia. Lusaka (Mimeograph)Google Scholar
  184. Murphy IK, Bhat PR, Ravindranath NH (2005) Financial valuation of non-timber forest product flows in Uttara Kannada District, Western Ghats, Karnataka. Curr Sci 88:1573–1579Google Scholar
  185. Myers N (1988) Tropical forests: much more than stocks of wood. J Trop Ecol 4:209–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Naidu MR, Ravi Kumar KM, Murthy PSS (2003) Temporal variation in the marketing of minor forest in tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh- a case study. Indian J Agric Mark 17:39–49Google Scholar
  187. Narendran K, Murthy IK, Suresh HS (2001) Non-timber forest product extraction, utilization and valuation: a case study from the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Southern India. Econ Bot 55:528–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Negi JS, Prabhakar DB, Chawla JS (1984) Whole tree utilization: pine twigs for fibre boards. Holzforschung Holz verwerschung 36:77–80Google Scholar
  189. Nelson TC, Williamson MJ (1970) Decorative plants of Appalachia: a source of income. Agriculture Information Bulletin 342, USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC, 31pGoogle Scholar
  190. Nepstad D, Schwartzman S (1992) Non-timber forest products from tropical forests. Evaluation a conservation and development strategy, Advances in economic botany. The New York Botanical Garden, New York, pp 9–12Google Scholar
  191. Neumann RP, Hirsch E (2000) Commercialization of non-timber forest products: review and analysis of research. CIFOR, BogorGoogle Scholar
  192. Newman DH, Hammett AL III (1994) Non-timber forest products market development as a means of tropical forest protection. In: Bentley W, Gowen M (eds) Forest resources and wood-based biomass energy as rural development assets. Winrock International, Oxford and IBH Publishing CO, New Delhi, p 347Google Scholar
  193. Nybakk E, Crespell PE, Lunnan A (2009) Antecedents to forest owner innovativeness: an investigation of the non-timber forest products and services sector. For Ecol Manage 257:608–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Okafor JC (1991) Improving edible species of forest products. Unasylva 165 42:17, 165Google Scholar
  195. Okafor JC, Omoraradion FI, Amaja (1994) Non-timber forest products (Nigeria). Consultancy paper prepared by the Tropical Forest Action Program (TFAP) Forest Management, Evaluation and Co-ordination Units (FORMECU) and Federal Department of Forestry (FDF) Abuja, Nigeria, 8pGoogle Scholar
  196. Oksanen T, Mersmann C (2002) Forests in poverty reduction strategies. Draft report. PROFOR, USDA, USAGoogle Scholar
  197. Padoch C (1992) Marketing of non-timber forest products in Western Amazonia: general observation and research priorities. In: Nepstad DC, Schwartzman S (eds) Non-timber forest products from tropical forests. Cronwell press, TrowbridgeGoogle Scholar
  198. Padoch C, de Jong W (1989) Production and profit in agroforestry: an example from the Peruvian Amazon. In: Browder JG (ed) Fragile lands of Latin America: strategies for sustainable development. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 102–113Google Scholar
  199. Pal G, Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya A (2009) An analysis of price spread in marketing of lac in Madhya Pradesh. Indian J For 32:581–584Google Scholar
  200. Pal G, Jaiswal AK, Bhattacharya A (2012) Lac, plant resins and gums statistics at a glance- 2012. Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Ranchi (Communicated)Google Scholar
  201. Panda SK (2013) Provision of livelihood opportunity in the fringe forest: some experiences of Tripura. Indian For 139:187–192Google Scholar
  202. Pandey R (2009) Forest resource utilization by tribal community of Jaunsar, Uttarakhand. Indian For 135:655–662Google Scholar
  203. Parameswarappa S (1992) Agarbathi industry in Karnataka: some thoughts on raw materials. My For 28:143–146Google Scholar
  204. Peters CM (1996) The ecology and management of non-timber forest resources, World Bank technical paper no. 322. The World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Peters CM, Gentry AH, Mendelsohn RO (1989) Valuation of an Amazonian rainforest. Nature 339:655–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Pettenella D, Secco L, Maso D (2007) NWPP&S marketing: lessons learned and new development paths from case studies in some European countries. Small Scale For 6:373–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Pierce AR (1999) The challenges of certifying non-timber forest products. J For 97:34–37Google Scholar
  208. Pierce AR, Emery MR (2005) The use of forests in times of crisis: ecological literacy as a safety net. For Trees Livelihoods 15:249–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Plotkin M, Famolare L (eds) (1992) Sustainable harvest and marketing of rain forest products. Conservation International-Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  210. Prakash B (2003) Marketing of minor forest produce in India: trends, constraints and prospects. Indian J Agric Mark 17:28–38Google Scholar
  211. Princes LH (1983) A new oilseed crop. Econ Bot 37:478–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Rembert DJ (1979) The indigo of commerce in colonial North America. Econ Bot 33:128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Richards DC (1992) Ecoprotection enterprise, hope hyperbole or hoax. Draft paper prepared for the Biodiversity Support ProgramGoogle Scholar
  214. Richards RT (1997) What the natives know: wild mushrooms and forest health. J For 95:5–10Google Scholar
  215. Rist L, Shanley P, Sunderland T, Sheil D et al (2011) The impacts of selective logging on non-timber forest products of livelihood importance. For Ecol Manage 268:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Robbins CS (1998) American ginseng: the root of North America’s medicinal herb trade. TRAFFIC North America, Washington, DC, 94pGoogle Scholar
  217. Robbins P, Emery MR, Rice JL (2008) Gathering in Thoreau’s backyard: non-timber forest product harvesting as a practice. Area 40:265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Roy SB (ed) (2003) Contemporary studies in natural resource management in India. Inter-India Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  219. Ruiz Pérez M, Belcher B, Achdiawan R (2004) Markets drive the specialization strategies of forest peoples. Ecol Soc 9:4. Available in http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/Journal/vol9/iss2/art4
  220. Ruiz-Perez M, Arnold JEM (1996) Current issues in non-timber forest products research. CIFOR, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  221. Salafsky N, Wollenberg E (2000) Linking livelihoods and conservation: a conceptual framework and scale for assessing the integration of human needs and biodiversity. World Dev 28:1421–1438Google Scholar
  222. Savage M (1995) Pacific Northwest special forestry products: an industry in transition. J For 93:6–11Google Scholar
  223. Saxena NC (2003) Livelihood diversification and non-timber forest products in Orissa: wider lessons on the scope for policy change? Working paper 223. Overseas Development Institute, London, 57pGoogle Scholar
  224. Schlosser WW, Blatner KA, Chapman R (1991) Economic and marketing implications of special forest products harvest in the coastal Pacific Northwest. West J Appl For 6:67–72Google Scholar
  225. Schreckenberg K, Marshall E (2006) Women and NTFPs: improving income and status? In: Marshall E, Schreckenberg K, Newton AC (eds) Commercialization of non-timber forest products: factors influencing success. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, 136p, Available in http://quin.unep-wcmc.org/forest/ntfp/gender.cfm?displang=eng
  226. Schreckenberg K, Marshall E, Newton A et al (2006) Commercialization of non-timber forest products: what determines success? Forestry Briefing No. 10 ODI LondonGoogle Scholar
  227. Schwartzman S (1989) Extractive reserves in the Amazon. In: Browder JG (ed) Fragile lands of Latin America: strategies for sustainable development. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 150–163Google Scholar
  228. Schwartzman S (1992) Social movements and natural resource conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. In: Counsell S, Rice T (eds) The rainforest harvest: sustainable strategies for saving the tropical forests. Friends of the Earth, London, pp 207–212Google Scholar
  229. Scoones I, Melnyk M, Pretty J (1992) The hidden harvest: wild foods and agricultural systems: a literature review and annotated bibliography. IIED, LondonGoogle Scholar
  230. Scott J (2000) Social network analysis, 2nd edn. Sage Publications, London, 208pGoogle Scholar
  231. Shackleton CM, Shackleton SE (2004) The importance of non-timber forest products in rural livelihood security and as safety nets: a review of evidence from South Africa. S Afr J Sci 100:658–664Google Scholar
  232. Shackleton SE, Shackleton CM (2005) The contribution of marula (Sclerocarya birrea) fruit and fruit products to rural livelihoods in the Bushbuckridge district, South Africa: balancing domestic needs and commercialization. For Trees Livelihoods 15:3–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Shackleton SE, Shackleton CM (2010) Exploring the role of wild natural resources in poverty alleviation with an emphasis on South Africa. In: Hebinck P, Shackleton CM (eds) Reforming land use and resource use in South Africa: impact on livelihoods. Taylor & Francis, RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  234. Shackleton SE, Shanley P, Ndoye O (2007) Visible but invisible: recognizing local markets for non-timber forest products. Int For Rev 9:697–712Google Scholar
  235. Shackleton SE, Campbell B, Lotz-Sisitka H et al (2008) Links between the local trade in natural products, livelihoods and poverty alleviation in a semi-arid region of South Africa. World Dev 36:505–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Shackleton S, Paumgarten F, Kassa H (2011) Opportunities for enhancing poor women’s socio-economic empowerment in the value chains of three African non-timber forest products. Int For Rev 13:136–151Google Scholar
  237. Shanley P, Pierce AR, Laird S et al (eds) (2002) Tapping the green market: certification and management of non-timber forest products, People and plants conservation series. Earthscan Publications Limited, LondonGoogle Scholar
  238. Sharma OP (1984) Chemistry and technology of catechu and kutch. International Book Distributor, Dehra DunGoogle Scholar
  239. Sharma P (1996) Non-wood forest products and integrated mountain development: observations from Nepal. Business seminar on medicinal herbs, essential oils and other non-timber forest products. DEG/NGCCI, 11pGoogle Scholar
  240. Sharma UR, Malla KJ, Uprety RK (2004) Conservation and management efforts of medicinal and aromatic plants in Nepal. Banko Jankari 14(2):3–11Google Scholar
  241. Sheil D, Wunder S (2002) The value of tropical forests to local communities: complications, caveats and cautions. Conserv Ecol 6:9Google Scholar
  242. Shillington LJ (2002) Non-timber forest products, gender and households in Nicaragua: a commodity chain analysis. MSc thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, 103pGoogle Scholar
  243. Shiva MP (1998) Inventory of forest resources for sustainable management and biodiversity conservation. Indus Publishing Company, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  244. Shrestha-Acharya R, Heinen J (2006) Emerging policy issues on non-timber forest products in Nepal. Himalaya 26:51–53Google Scholar
  245. Singh B (1988) Effect of removal of pine needles from the forest floor. Indian For 114:761–769Google Scholar
  246. Sirianni C (2009) The civic mission of a federal agency in the age of networked governance. Am Behav Sci 52:933–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Smith R, Beckley T, Cameron S (2003) Building partnerships for the sustainable management of non-timber forest products. In: Proceedings of XII World Forestry Congress: Area B-Forests for the planet, paper no. 329. Quebec City, Canada, 307pGoogle Scholar
  248. Soni PL (1991) Carbohydrates. Surya Publications, Dehra DunGoogle Scholar
  249. Spero V, Fleming C (2002) Case study: Rio Grande National Forest. In: McLain RJ, Jones ET, Weigand J (eds) Non-timber forest products in the United States. University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp 108–114Google Scholar
  250. Stainsby M (2009) British Columbia maple syrup comes on-stream. Vancouver Sun, March 14Google Scholar
  251. Strong N, Jacobson M (2006) A case for consumer-driven extension programming: agroforestry adoption potential in Pennsylvania. Agrofor Syst 68:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Subedi BP (1997) Utilization of non-timber forest products: issues and strategies for environmental conservation and economic development. Workshop theme paper for the workshop on the utilization of NTFPs for environmental conservation and economic development in Nepal. Asia Network for small scale agricultural resources, Kathmandu, Nepal, 29 March 1997Google Scholar
  253. Surayya T, Pethiya BP, Bhattacharya P et al (2005) Strategic role of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) and microfinance in reducing the poverty- case studies- India. Paper presented at 17th Commonwealth Forestry Conference, Colombo Sri LankaGoogle Scholar
  254. Tangley L (1993) Marketing biodiversity products: the Tagua initiative. Conservation International, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  255. Taylor EL, Foster CD (2003) Managing your East Texas forest for the production of pine straw. Texas Coop Ext Publ 805–113, 11pGoogle Scholar
  256. Taylor F, Mateke SM, Butterworth KJ (1996) A holistic approach to the domestication and commercialization of non-timber products. In: Leakey RRB, Temu AB, Melnyk M, Vantomme P (eds) Domestication and commercialization of non-timber forest products in agroforestry systems. FAO, Rome, pp 75–85Google Scholar
  257. Tcheknavorian A, Wijesekera ROB (1982) Medicinal and aromatic plants for industrial development. UNIDO report IO 505, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  258. Teel WS, Buck LE (1998) From wildcrafting to intentional cultivation: the potential for producing specialty forest products in agroforestry systems in temperate North America. In: Josiah SJ (ed) Proceedings of the North American conference on enterprise development through agroforestry: farming the forest for specialty products. Center for Integrated Natural Resource and Agricultural Management. Minneapolis, pp 7–24Google Scholar
  259. Tewari DN (1989) Dependences of tribals on forests. Gujarat Vidyapith, AhmadabadGoogle Scholar
  260. Tewari DD (1994) Developing and sustaining non-timber forest products, policy issues and concerns with special reference to India. J World For Resour Manag 7:151–178Google Scholar
  261. Tewari DD, Campbell JY (1995) Developing and sustaining non-timber forest products: some policy issues and concerns with special reference to India. J Sustain For 3:53–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Thandani R (2001) International non-timber forest product issues. In: Emery MR, McLain RJ (eds) Non-timber forest products: medicinal herbs, fungi, edible fruits and nuts, and other natural products from the forest. Food Products Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  263. Thomas MG, Schumann DR (1993) Income opportunities in special forest products: self help suggestions for rural entrepreneurs. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Information Bulletin, 666, Washington, DC, 206pGoogle Scholar
  264. Titus BD, Kerns BK, Cocksedge W (2004) Compatible (or co-) management of forests for timber and non-timber values. In: Proc. Can. Inst. Forestry/Institut Forestier du Canada and the Soc. Am. For. Joint 2004 Annu. Gen. Meet. Convention “One Forest under Two Flags- Une Foret Sous Deux Drapeaux”, Edmonton, Alta., Canada, 2–6 October 2004. Available in http://bookstore.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/detail_e.php?recid=12584726
  265. Touchette C (1998) The role and importance of regional and national trade associations in marketing. In: Josiah SJ (ed) Proceedings of the North American conference on enterprise development through agroforestry: farming the forest for specialty products, Center for Integrated Natural Resource and Agricultural Management, University of MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  266. Trease GE, Evans WC (1983) Pharmacognosy, 14th edn. Brown Publications, Oral Read, LondonGoogle Scholar
  267. Uma Shankar K, Murali S, Uma Shaanker R et al (1996) Extraction of non-timber forest products in the forests of Biligiri Rangan Hills, India. 3. Productivity, extraction and prospects of sustainable harvest of Amla, Phyllanthus emblica (Euphorbiaceae). Econ Bot 50:270–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Vance NC (1995) Medicinal plants rediscovered. J For 93:6–7Google Scholar
  269. Vance NC (2002) Ecological considerations in sustainable use of wild plants. In: McLain RJ, Jones ET, Weigand J (eds) Non-timber forest products in the United States. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, pp 151–162Google Scholar
  270. Varadha RS, Swaminathan LP, Vanangamudi K (2003) Collection and marketing of non-timber forest products (NTFPs)- an economic analysis. Indian J Agric Mark 17:1–72Google Scholar
  271. Vaughan RC (2011) Group analysis of collaborative conservation. MS thesis, Virginia Polytechnique Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, 145pGoogle Scholar
  272. Vaughan RC, Munsell JF, Chamberlain JL (2013) Opportunities for enhancing non-timber Forest Products Management in the United States. J For 111:26–33Google Scholar
  273. Von Hagen B, Weigan JF, McLain R (1996) Conservation and development of non-timber forest products in the Pacific Northwest: an annotated bibliography. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-375. USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, 246pGoogle Scholar
  274. Warner K (2000) Forestry and sustainable livelihoods: what part can forests and forestry play in reducing poverty? Unasylva 202:3–12Google Scholar
  275. Wickens GE (1991) Management issues for development of non-timber forest products. Unasylva 42:3–8Google Scholar
  276. Wijesekera ROB (1992) Practical manual on the essential oils industry. UNIDO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  277. Wilsey DS, Nelson KC (2008) Conceptualizing multiple non-timber forest product harvest and harvesting motivations among balsam bough pickers in northern Minnesota. Soc Nat Resour 9:812–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Wittig MA, Schmitz J (1996) Electronic grassroots organizing. J Soc Issues 52:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Wollenberg E, Ingles A (eds) (1998) Incomes from the forest. Methods for the development and conservation of forest products for local communities. CIFOR, IUCN, BogorGoogle Scholar
  280. Workman SW, Bannister ME, Nair PKR (2003) Agroforestry potential in the southeastern United States: perceptions of landowners and extension professionals. Agrofor Syst 59:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Wunder S (2001) Poverty alleviation and tropical forests – what scope for synergies? World Dev 29:1817–1833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Wynberg R, Laird S, Shackleton S (2003) Marula commercialization for sustainable and equitable livelihoods. For Trees Livelihoods 13:203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Yadav G, Roy SB (1991) Significance of non-timber forest produces (NTFPs): availability and its utilization pattern in rural community of Midnapur, West Bengal. Technical paper, IBARD, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  284. Zaheer A, McEvily B, Perrone V (1998) Does trust matter? Exploring the effects of interorganizational and interpersonal trust on performance. Organize Sci 9:141–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumit Chakravarty
    • 1
  • Anju Puri
    • 2
  • Mohit Subba
    • 1
  • Tanusri Dey
    • 1
  • Prakash Rai
    • 1
  • Gopal Shukla
    • 1
  • Nazir A. Pala
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forestry, Faculty of HorticultureUttar Banga Krishi ViswavidyalayaPundibari, Cooch BeharIndia
  2. 2.Baring Union Christian CollegeBatalaIndia

Personalised recommendations