Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.)

  • Shrikant Hiwale


Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) is one of the ancient and important fruit crops of India as it can stand drought and tolerate salinity to a considerable extent. It is often called the poor man’s fruit. In India out of the 143 million ha of cultivated land, about 57 % is rainfed. Still this area contributes about ½ the food basket of the country. Horticulture can play an important role in rejuvenating the falling incomes of the farmers in these areas. Of late commercial importance of ber has been realized and ber cultivation has received a great impetus in India. The ber fruits are available right from October to May in different regions. It is an ideal fruit tree for growing in arid and semiarid zones of India. Exponential increase in human and livestock population in India has put tremendous pressure on natural resources, owing to not only degradation of principal resources like land, water, and vegetation but also reduced per capita availability of land. The ber is a multipurpose crop as it provides 3F’s, i.e., fruit, fodder, and fuel. Ber fruits are generally consumed fresh, but dried ber, candy, preservers, beverages, etc. can also be prepared from it. Besides being palatable and delicious, the recent research has disclosed its high nutritive value. It is one of the richest sources of vitamin C next only to amla and guava but better than citrus and apple.


Main Shoot Rainfed Condition Fruit Drop Shoot Diameter Cluster Bean 


  1. Bhargava BS, Raturi GB, Hiwale SS (1990) Leaf sampling technique in ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) for nutritional diagnosis. Singap J Prim Ind 18(2):85–95Google Scholar
  2. Dhillon BS, Singh K (1968) Effect of some plant regulators on fruit set and fruit drop in Ziziphus jujuba Linn. J Res Punjab Agric Univ Ludhiana 5:392–494Google Scholar
  3. Gopani GD (1976) Arthik dristi se bor ki kheti. Gujarat Agricultural University, Junagadh Gujarat (In Guajarati)Google Scholar
  4. Gupta AK (1984) Nutritive components of arid fruits crops and vegetables. In: Das HC (ed) Proceedings of summer institute on recent advances in Arid Horticulture, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  5. Hiwale SS (1991) Determination of leaf area in jujbe (ZiZIphus mauritiana) using linear parameters. Indian J Agric Sci 61(5):335–336Google Scholar
  6. Hiwale SS (2002) Root distribution studies in Ber (Ziziphus amuritiana. Lamk.). Ann Arid Zone 41(1):89–91Google Scholar
  7. Hiwale SS (2004a) Develop sustainable agri–horti production systems on marginal lands. Technical Bulletin, pp 1–57Google Scholar
  8. Hiwale SS (2004b) Cultivating Ber in the dry lands of Western India. (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk). Indian Farm 53(12):20–23Google Scholar
  9. Hiwale SS (2005) Goma kirti: anew ber variety. Indian Hortic (50) 1:24Google Scholar
  10. Hiwale SS (2011) Canopy management through shoot pinching in ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.). Abstract of paper in proceedings of 2nd international Jujube symposium (In China)Google Scholar
  11. Hiwale SS, Raturi GB (1993a) Horti-silvi-pastoral system for increased productivity of marginal and degraded lands under rainfed conditions. Adv Hortic For 3:114–117Google Scholar
  12. Hiwale SS, Raturi GB (1993b) Influence of severity of pruning on growth, yield and quality of Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.). Progress Hortic 25(3/4):161–163Google Scholar
  13. Hiwale SS, Raturi GB (1996a) Propagation of Ber by in situ budding. Indian Hortic 41(3):24–25Google Scholar
  14. Hiwale SS, Raturi GB (1996b) Effect of GA3 and Kinetin on seed germination and seedling growth in ber. In: Singh SP (ed) Advances in horticulture and forestry. Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur, pp 51–53Google Scholar
  15. Misra AK, Jauhari OS (1970) Root induction in layers and stem cuttings of Morus alba and (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) with special reference to plant growth regulators. Indian J Hortic 27(3/4):141–146Google Scholar
  16. Pareek OP (1983) The Ber. ICAR, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  17. Randhawa GS, Kohli RR (1976) Ber cultivation un south India. Indian Hortic 21(2):25–27Google Scholar
  18. Raturi GB, Hiwale SS (1992) Increasing productivity of degraded lands in dry land areas. Orissa J Hortic (20):8–12Google Scholar
  19. Raturi GB, Hiwale SS (1993) Horti silvi pastoral systems for increased productivity of marginal and degraded lands under rainfed conditions. In: Singh SP (ed) Advances in horticulture and forestry. Scientific Publisher, JodhpurGoogle Scholar
  20. Singh P, Bajwa MS, Singh R (1973) Propagation of ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) I. Effect of ringing and IBA on the stooling. Plant Sci 5:137–139Google Scholar
  21. Singh SP, Singh IB, Singh VN (1987) A note on effect of gibberellic acid on fruit set, fruit retention and quality of jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) Cv. Banarasi Karaka. Progress Hortic 19(1–2):61–64Google Scholar
  22. Teotia SS, Chauhan RS (1963) Flowering, pollination, fruit set fruit drop studies in ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) I. Floral biology. Punjab Hortic J 3:60–70Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shrikant Hiwale
    • 1
  1. 1.Fruit CropsCentral Horticultural Experiment StationVejalpurIndia

Personalised recommendations