Alternate Land-Use Systems or Sustainable Development
The work was carried out to develop sustainable agri-silvi-horti production system of marginal lands. Aonla-based cropping system was found to be best suited for the rainfed areas of western India with maximum income, production, income generation, and improvement in soil fertility status.
Aonla with arable crops like Sesamum and maize are found to be the highest in production, LER (1.71), net return (Rs. 68,715/-), and B: C ratio of 7.92, respectively. Aonla + maize was found to be the most suitable for the semiarid area as maize is a traditional crop of the farmers of the region and also provides fodder for their cattle. Therefore, though the income is low, the technology is well adopted by the farmers. Adaptability of aonla is clearly established as despite the prevalent drought-like situation yield up to 55 q/ha. Was obtained followed by custard apple-based cropping system. There was overall improvement in soil health.
Increased growth and biomass production recorded in Neem + fodder jowar was the best. The system also resulted in improvement in soil fertility status. Agri-horti production system was found to be highly remunerative and the income started from 2 to 3 years of plantation.
Bioassay studies carried out with four tree species and nine test crops revealed that generally Neem was found to have a suppressing effect on most of the growth parameters, whereas fruit tree species of custard apple and aonla were found to have beneficial effect.
Studies on leaf litter fall and decomposition revealed that aonla produced the highest leaf litter than all the fruit tree species, whereas in silvicultural species, subabul was found to produce the highest leaf litter. Large amounts of nutrients were recycled by subabul followed by aonla.
Studies on soil moisture content carried out with the help of TDR meter at CHES, Godhra, indicated that during crop growth period, the moisture content in subabul soils was least and was maximum in custard apple moisture content in different system (5–17 %).
Staggered contour trench planting was found to be the best for reducing runoff and soil loss effectively. Runoff and soil loss was higher in custard apple and Neem; comparatively less runoff and soil loss was recorded in aonla.
Incidental PAR and higher LAI of the cropping system resulted in higher dry matter production and conversion coefficient. Maximum LAI, dry matter production, and conversion coefficient were recorded in subabul indicating that silvicultural species have more carbon accumulation than fruit tree species, where fruits act as vigorous sink for carbohydrates.
Root distribution studies carried out by excavation method revealed that maximum root biomass and aboveground biomass was recorded in subabul. Aonla produced maximum root depth and in Neem maximum horizontal root spread. Maximum root to crown spread ratio was recorded in subabul. Custard apple has very small but efficient root system both by weight and by spread. All the tree species have root system, which is within the canopy of the tree and hence will not interfere with the intercrops, and thus the competition between the species for water and nutrients reduced.
Studies on quality of charcoal produced by tree species revealed that the wood specific gravity was maximum in Neem. Percent charcoal production was highest in custard apple. Charcoal produced from aonla took maximum time to burn. Maximum ash was produced by 1 kg aonla charcoal. Though maximum percent charcoal was produced by custard apple, the amount of charcoal produced is very less compared to other tree species.
Sustainable resource management through horticulture-based farming systems attempted to demonstrate an ideal model for production utilization of resource-poor situations in semiarid areas of western India. Rainwater stored and recharged in down profile of the gullies is being utilized for life-saving irrigation at critical crop growth stages and also for establishment of new plantations. The tree component adds leaf litter to the soil, helping in recycling of the nutrients back to the soil. Apart from this, trees helped in reducing runoff losses and thereby soil erosion. The system has given higher economic return as compared to traditional system of maize + pigeon pea.
KeywordsTree Species Leaf Litter Soil Loss Marginal Land Leaf Litter Decomposition
- Agrawal RK (1980) Physicochemical status of soil under khejri (Prosopis cineraria). In: Mann HS, Saxena SK (eds) Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) in the Indian deserts. CAZRI, Jodhpur, pp 32–36Google Scholar
- Anonymous (1984) Detail soil survey of CHES, Godhra, Gujarat by NBSS & LUP, Center BarodaGoogle Scholar
- BanwariLal (2000) Beneficial allelopathic effect of Syzygium cumini litter fall biomass on arable crops. Indian J Agro For 2:53–57Google Scholar
- Bisla SS, Nandal DS (1992) Influence of aqueous leaf extract of eucalyptus and poplar on germination and seedling growth in winter crops. In: Tauro P, Narwal SS (eds) Proceedings of first national symposium on Allelopathy in Agro eco system. HAU, HissrGoogle Scholar
- Brower R (1983) Functional equilibrium sense or non sense Netherland. J Agric Sci 31:335–348Google Scholar
- Challa P, Ravindra V (1999) Allelopathic potential of mango leaves for weed management in Rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Happiness) basins. Allelopath J 6(1):75–80Google Scholar
- CSWCRTI (1980) 25 Years of research on soil and water conservation in semi arid deep black soils. Monograph No. 1. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Research Center, Bellary, Karnataka, pp 189Google Scholar
- Dalal MR, Dahiya DS, Sarmah MK, Narwal SS (1992) Suppression effect of arid zone trees on plant stand and growth of crops. In: Tauro P, Narwal SS (eds) Proceedings of first national symposium on allelopathy in agro-ecosystem. HAU, Hissar, pp 127–128Google Scholar
- FAO (1978) Report on the FAO/UNEP expert consultation on methodology for assessing soil degradation. FAO, Rome, 70 ppGoogle Scholar
- Gaba RK (1987) Role of allelopathic in social forestry. In: Khosla PK, Kohli RK (eds) Social forestry for rural development. ISTS, SolanGoogle Scholar
- Gill AS (2001) Tips for the success of agro forestry. Indian Farm 3:21–24Google Scholar
- Hiwale SS (2000) Annual report of national agricultural technology project on develop sustainable agri-horti-silvi production system on marginal land, pp 25–54Google Scholar
- Hiwale SS (2001) Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) – a suitable agro-forestry species for semi-arid conditions for western India. Paper presented in national workshop on reorientation of diversified agro-forestry system for profitable rural industries, held at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, 26–27 March 2001Google Scholar
- Hiwale SS (2004) Technical bulletin on develop sustainable agri–horti on marginal lands under rain fed conditions. Central Horticultural Experiment Station (C.I.A.H.), Vejalpur-389340Google Scholar
- Hiwale SS (2014) Paper entitled “Increasing productivity of marginal lands through rainfed fruit cultivation in semiarid tropics”. In: ISTS –IUFRO conference on sustainable resource management for climate change mitigation and social security, Ludhiana, 13–5 March 2014Google Scholar
- Hiwale SS, Raturi GB (1996) Propagation of Ber by In –Situ budding. Indian Hortic 41(3):25–26Google Scholar
- Hiwale SS, Raturi GB, Bagle B.G, More TA (2007) Technical bulletin fruit tree base cropping systems for dry landsGoogle Scholar
- Hussain FI, Bong–Seop J (1991) Allelopathic effect of walnut plants (Juglans regia) on four crop species. Korean J Bot 34:93–100Google Scholar
- Info@treesftf.org. How to calculate the amount of CO2 sequestered per treeGoogle Scholar
- Kaur A, Rao PB (2000) Allelopathic effect of four agro forestry tree species on seed germination and seedling growth of certain varieties of wheat. Acta Bot Ind 28:9–14Google Scholar
- Kaur A, Shankdhar SC, Rao PB (1999) Allopathic studies of Eucalyptus, Leucaena and popular tree species on seed germination and seedling growth of certain varieties of wheat. Proc Acad Environ Biol 8:205–215Google Scholar
- Kunhama TK (1994) Nutrient content of decomposition of leaf biomass of selected woody tree Species. M. Sc. thesis submitted to Kerala Agricultural University, Trichur, IndiaGoogle Scholar
- Lal R (1988) Soil erosion control with alley cropping. In: 5th international soil conservation conference, BangkokGoogle Scholar
- Lal B, Singh HK, Khosla OPS (1997) Effect of litter biomass of MPTs and nitrogen sources on growth and yield of forage crops. Indian J Soil Conserv 25(1):46–50Google Scholar
- Lewis J, Vosti S, Ericson PJ, Guevera R, Tomich T (2002) Alternative to slash and burn in brazil, Summary report, pp 32–33Google Scholar
- Mutanal SM, Nadagoudar BS, Patil SJ (2001) Economic evaluation of an agro–forestry system in hill zone of Karnataka. Indian J Agric Sci 71(3):163–165Google Scholar
- Nandal DPS, Bisla SS, Narwal SS, Kaushik JC (1994) Allelopathic interactions in agro-forestry systems. In: Narwal SS, Tauro P (eds) Allelopathy in agriculture and forestry. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, pp 92–130Google Scholar
- Narwal SS (1994) Allelopathy in crop production. Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur, 288 pGoogle Scholar
- Pande PK, Sharma SC (1988) Litter nutrient dynamics of some plantation at New Forest, Dehra Dun. J Trop For 4:339–349Google Scholar
- Patnaik US, James VV, Chittaranjan S, Ramnath B, Subbayan R (1982) Conservation ditching for soil and water conservation in deep black soils. Annual report, Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehra Dun, pp 180Google Scholar
- Putnam AR, Tang CS (1986) The science of allelopathy. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Ramakrishna A, Singh B (1974) Wasteland News 3(1): 79–87Google Scholar
- Rao PB (1988) Effect of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling growth in Quercus floribunda and Cupressus torulosa tree species of central Himalaya. Ann Bot 61:531–540Google Scholar
- Rao OP, Saxena AK, Singh BP (1994) Allelopathic effects of certain agro forestry tree species on the germination of wheat, paddy and gram. Ann For 2:60–64Google Scholar
- Raturi GB, Hiwale SS (1993a) Horti-silvi-pastoral system for increased productivity of marginal and degraded lands under rainfed conditions. Adv Hortic For 3:179–186Google Scholar
- Raturi GB, Hiwale SS (1993b) Horti-silvi-pastoral system for increased productivity of marginal and degraded lands under rainfed conditions. In: Trivedi AP, Gupta GN (eds) Chapter in book on “Afforestation of Arid Lands”. Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur, pp 364–369Google Scholar
- Raturi GB, Hiwale SS (1999) Horti-Silvi-Pastoral system – a boon to the tribal farmers. In: Lead paper presented in national seminar on sustainable horticultural production in tribal areas, held at C.H.E.S., Ranchi on 25–26 July 1999Google Scholar
- Richardson DR, Williamson GB (1988) Allopathic effect of Shrubs of the Sandpine shrubs on Pines and grasses of the sand hills. For sci 34:592–605Google Scholar
- Roose EJ (1977) Erosion et ruissellment en Afrique de l’ouest. Vingt annees de measures en Petites parcelies experimentales. Travaux et Documents de L’ORSTOM, Office dela Research Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, France No. 78, 108 ppGoogle Scholar
- Sharma KMS, Dhillon MS, Dhingra KK (1967) Presence of germination inhibitors in the leaf leachates of some farm grown trees. Indian Forester 113:816–820Google Scholar
- Swift MJ, Heal OW, Anderson JM (1979) Decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 46–87Google Scholar
- Tondon HLS (1984) Methods of analysis of soils, plants, water and fertilizer. Fertilizer Development and Cultivation Organization, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Van Noorwijik RJ (1989) Functional interpretation of root densities in the field for nutrient and water uptake edits Kustecher warzeslogic and Nutzenwadung, Gumpenstin Iraning, pp 262–279Google Scholar
- Wiersum KF (1985) Effects of various vegetative layers in an Acacia auriculiformis forest plantation on surface erosion in Java, Indonesia. In: EI-Swaify SA, Molenhauer WC (eds) Soil erosion and conservationGoogle Scholar
- Young A (1988) Agro forestry in the control of soil erosion by water. Agro For Abstr 1(2/3):39–48Google Scholar
- Young A (1997) Agroforestry for soil management, 2nd edn. CAB International/ICRAF, New York, pp 47–109Google Scholar