Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.)

  • Shrikant Hiwale


Tamarindus indica L. is a member of the dicotyledonous family Fabaceae of subfamily Caesalpinioideae having five to nine tribes based on morphology. Cultivation of tamarind started in Egypt as early as 400 BC. The tree is also mentioned in the Indian Brahma Samhita scriptures between 1200 and 200 BC and in Buddhist sources from around the year 650 AD.

In recent times identification of superior types of varieties has led to regular plantation of the crop all over India.

India is the world’s largest producer of tamarind products. In India, it is naturally regenerated on wastelands and forest lands. Since ancient times, India has been exporting processed tamarind pulp to Western countries, mainly the European and Arab countries and more recently the USA.


Home Garden Fruit Yield Fruit Pulp Indole Butyric Acid Palm Sugar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ahmed M (1990) Deviation in feeding behavior of Achaea janata Linn. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ann Entomol 8(2):15–17Google Scholar
  2. Allen ON, Allen EK (1981) The leguminosae: a source book of characteristics, uses and nodulation. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 812 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Amin RS (1978) ‘Scion wood grafting’ a new technique for hardwood plants. Curr Sci 47:468–469Google Scholar
  4. Andriamanantena RW, Artuad J, Gaydofn EM, Iatrides MC, Chavalier JL (1983) Fatty acid and sterol composition of Malagasy tamarind kernels. J Am Oil Chem Soc 60(7):1318–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anon (1982a) Some recent developments. Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  6. Anon (1982b) Tamarind juice concentrate plant starts in Mysore. Indian Food Ind 1:43–44Google Scholar
  7. Beeson CFC (1941) The ecology and control of forest insects of India and the neighbouring countries. Government of India Publication, New Delhi,767 pGoogle Scholar
  8. Benthall AP (1933) The trees of Calcutta and its neighbourhood. Thacker Spink & Co., Calcutta, 513 pGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown WH (1954) Useful plants of the Philippines. Republic of the Philippines, Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Technical Bulletin. Bur Printer, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  10. Bueso CE (1980) Soursop, tamarind and chironka. In: Nagy S, Shaw PE (eds) Tropical and subtropical fruits. AVI Publishing, Westport, p 375Google Scholar
  11. Chapman KR (1984) Tamarind. In: Tropical tree fruits for Australia. Complied by Page PE. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Information series Q 183018, Brisbane, pp 83–86Google Scholar
  12. Chaturvedi AN (1985) Firewood farming on the degraded lands of gangetic plain. Utter Pradesh forest bulletin no.50, Lucknow, India. Government of India press (1), 286 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins NM, Sayer JA, Witmore TC (1991) The conservation atlas of tropical forests of Asia and the Pacific ICUW. Macmillan Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Coronel RE (1991) Tamarindus indica L. in plant resources of South East Asia. Wageningen; Pudoc. no. 2. In: Verheij EWM, Coronel RE (eds) Edible fruits and nuts. PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia, pp 298–301Google Scholar
  15. Dalziel JM (1937) The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Crown Agents for Overseas, London. Governments and Administrations, 612 pGoogle Scholar
  16. FAO (1988) Fruit bearing trees. Technical notes. FAO-SIDA For Paper 34:165–167Google Scholar
  17. Feungchan S, Yimsawat T, Chindaprasert S, Kitpowsong P (1996a) Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) plant genetic resources in Thailand. Thai J Agric Sci, Special Issue (1):1–11Google Scholar
  18. Feungchan S, Yimsawat T, Chindaprasert S, Kitpowsong P (1996b) Effect of plant regulators in fruit setting. Thai J Agric Sci Special Issue (1): 48–51Google Scholar
  19. Feungchan S, Yimsawat T, Chindaprasert S, Kitpowsong P (1996c) Studies on the colour change of tamarind pulp in storage. Thai J Agric Sci Special Issue (1):52–56Google Scholar
  20. Frankel OH, Hawkes JG (1975) Crop genetic resources. Today and tomorrow. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. Galang FG (1955) Fruits and nuts grown in the Philippines. Rizal AIA Printing Press, MalabonGoogle Scholar
  22. Gamble JS (1922) A manual of Indian timbers. Sampson Low, Marston & Co, London, 866 pGoogle Scholar
  23. Guerin JC, Reveillere HP (1984) Active antifongique d’extraits vegetaux a usage therapeutique. 1. Etude de 41 extracts sur 9 souches fonguques (Antifungal activity of plant extracts used in therapy). 1. Study of 41 plant extracts against 9 fungal species). Allalles Pharmaceutiques Francaises 42(6): 553–559 (English summary)Google Scholar
  24. Hong TD, Linnington S, Ellis RH (1996) Seed storage behaviour: a compendium. Handbook for genebanks no.4. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, RomeGoogle Scholar
  25. Jambulingam R, Fernandes ECM (1986) Multipurpose trees and shrubs in Tamil Nadu State (India). Agrofor Syst 4(1):17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jansen PCM (1981) Spices, condiments and medicinal plants in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation (PUDOC) Wageningen Agricultural Research Reports No. 906Google Scholar
  27. Jayaweera DMA (1981) Medicinal plants (Indigenous and exotic) used in Ceylon. Part III. Flacourtiaceae-Laytharecae. A publication of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka, pp 244–246Google Scholar
  28. Joseph KV, Oommen P (1960) Notes on some insect pests infesting dry tamarind fruits in Kerala State. Indian J Entomol 22(3):172–180Google Scholar
  29. Joshi p (1985) Weather indicating plants of tribals in Southern Rajasthan. Bot Bull India 27(1–4):100–104Google Scholar
  30. Kulkarni RS, Gangaprasad S, Swamy GSK (1993) Tamarind: economically an important minor forest produce. Minor For Prod News 3(3):6Google Scholar
  31. Lakshminarayan Rao MV, Subramanian N, Srinivasan N (1954) Free amino acids in tamarind pulp. J Sci Ind Res 13B: 377Google Scholar
  32. Leonard J (1957) Genera des Cynometreae et des Amherstieae africaines (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae). Memoire Acad Royale Belgique 30(2):1–314Google Scholar
  33. Mahadevan N p (1991) Phenological observations of some forest trees as an aid to seed collection. J Trop For 7(3):243–247Google Scholar
  34. Masano M (1994) Effect of pre-treatment on the germination process of Asam (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds. Bull Penelitian-Hitam 563:33–42Google Scholar
  35. Morton J (1987) Fruits of warm climates, J.F. Morton, Miami, pp 115–121Google Scholar
  36. NAS (1979) Tropical legumes: resources for the future, NAS, Washington, DC, pp 117–121Google Scholar
  37. Navaneetha N, Palniswamy KP, Abdul-Khader M, Kumar N (1990) Studies on rooting of cuttings cuttings of tamarind. South Indian Hortic 39(4):220–224Google Scholar
  38. Osawa T, Tsuda T, Watanabe M, Ohshima K, Yamamoto A (1994) Antioxidative components isolated from the seeds of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.). J Agric Food Chem 42(12):2671–2674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Padolina F (1931) Vegetative propagation experiments and seed germination. Philipp J Agric 2(4):347–355Google Scholar
  40. Panigrahi S, Bland B, Carlaw PM (1989) Nutritive value of tamarind for broiler chicks. J Anim Feed Sci Technol 22(4):285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pathak RK, Ojha CM, Dwivedi R (1992) Adopt patch budding for quicker multiplication in tamarind. Indian Hortic 36(2):17Google Scholar
  42. Postgate J (1979) Nitrogen fixation. The Camelot Press Ltd, SouthamptonGoogle Scholar
  43. Prasad A (1963) Studies on pollen germination in Tamarindus indica L. Madras Agric J 50L:202–203Google Scholar
  44. Purseglove JW (1987) Tropical crops. Dicotyledons. Longman Science and Technology, London, pp 204–206Google Scholar
  45. Purushotham K, Narasimharao SBS (1990) Propagation of tamarind by veneer and soft wood grafting. South Indian Hortic 38(4):225Google Scholar
  46. Raizada U (1965) Life history of Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. with detailed external morphology of the immature stage. Bull Entomol 6:30Google Scholar
  47. Rama Rao M (1975) Flowering plants of Travancore. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, 484 pGoogle Scholar
  48. Roy RN, Maiti SS, Mondal CR (1987) Tamarind seed husk as an effective fish poison. Environ Ecol 5(3):467–471Google Scholar
  49. Salim A, Simons A, Waruhin A, Orwa C (1998) Agroforestry tree database: a tree species reference and selection guide and tree seed suppliers directory. International Council for Research in Agroforestry, PO Box 30677, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  50. Shankaracharya NB (1998) Tamarind-chemistry, technology and uses-a critical appraisal. J Food Technol 35(3):193–208Google Scholar
  51. Singh M, Singh AK, Singh AK (1989) Screening of extracts of higher plants for virus inhibitory action. Geobios (India) 16(2–3):74–77Google Scholar
  52. Singha RK (1995) Biodiversity conservation through faith and tradition in India. Some case studies. Int J Sustain Dev World Ecol (UK) 2(4):278–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Splittstoesser WE, Mohamed Yaseen Y (1991) In vitro shoot regeneration of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) and carob (Ceratonia siliqua) with thidiazuron. In: Proceedings of the Inter-American society for tropical horticulture, 35–37th annual meeting, Vina-del-mar, Chile, 7–12 October 6–8Google Scholar
  54. Srivasuki KP, Reddy RD, Reddy KK (1990) Rooting of terminal cuttings of Tamarindus indica Linn. Indian Forester 116:984–985Google Scholar
  55. Storrs AEG (1995) Know your trees. Some common trees found in Zambia. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU), ZambiaGoogle Scholar
  56. Swaminath MH, Ravindran DS (1989) Vegetative propagation of fruit yielding tree species. My For 25(4):57–360Google Scholar
  57. Swaminath MH, Ravindra DS, Mumtaz J (1990) Propagation of tamarind through stem cuttings. My For 26(2):207–208Google Scholar
  58. Thimmaraju KR, Narayana Reddy MA, Swamy N, Sulladmath UV (1977) Studies on the floral biology of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.). Mysore J Agric Sci 11:293–298Google Scholar
  59. Timyan J (1996) BWA. Yo: Important trees in Haiti. Southeast Consortium for International Development, 1634, 1 Street N.W. Suite 702, Washington, DC, 20006Google Scholar
  60. Usha K, Singh B (1996) Influence of open and cross pollination on fruit set and retention in tamarind (Tamarinds Indica L.). Rec Hortic 3(1):60–61Google Scholar
  61. Verheij EMW, Coronel RE (eds) (1991) Edible fruits and nuts. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia, Handbook 2, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  62. Yaacob O, Subhadrabhandu S (1995) The production of economic fruits in South East Asia. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 133–142.1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shrikant Hiwale
    • 1
  1. 1.Fruit CropsCentral Horticultural Experiment StationVejalpurIndia

Personalised recommendations