Logical and Epistemological Norms in Scientific Theory Construction

  • Amitabha Gupta


Since the formative period of science in the antiquity, the logic of induction and deduction and the role they play in formulating scientific theories have been the concern for both the practicing scientists and the philosophers of science. It is commonly believed that science (and specifically a scientific theory) does not consist of discrete and random collection of factual statements, but comprises a network of both empirical and theoretical, particular and general, and observational and law statements in a coherent structure and framework. The role of logic in science, especially the job of the construction of scientific theories, essentially relates to spelling out the nature of these connections and relationships among the various types of statements in this network, explaining what entitles the scientists to move from one type of statement to another or justifying on what basis they do so.


Scientific Theory Epistemic Norm Logical Positivist Deductive Argument Causal Generalization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. And (1991) Realism, antifoundationalism, and the enthusiasm for natural kinds. Philos Stud 61:127–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold (1974) Knowledge and society. Pegasus, IndianapolisGoogle Scholar
  3. Arrow KJ (1951, 1963) Social choice and individual values. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Beth EW (1967) Aspects of modern logic. Reidel, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  5. Black M (1967) The article on induction. In: Edwards P (ed) Encyclopedia of philosophy. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyd R (1990) What realism implies and what it does not. Dialectica 43:5–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Broad CD (1918) The relation between induction and probability I. Mind 27:389–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broad CD (1920) The relation between induction and probability II. Mind 29:11–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Caneva KL (1978) From galvanism to electrodynamics: the transformation of German physics and its social context. In: McCormmach P, Pyanson L (eds) Historical studies in the physical sciences, vol 9. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 60–160Google Scholar
  10. Cartwright N (1983) How the laws of physics lie. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cartwright N (1989) Nature’s capacities and their measurement. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  12. Cartwright N (1999) The dappled world: a study of the boundaries of science. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Churchland P (1979) Scientific realism and the plasticity of mind. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen BP (1980) Developing sociological knowledge: theory and method. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  15. Collier J (1996) On the necessity of natural kinds. In: Riggs P (ed) Natural kinds, laws of nature, and scientific reasoning. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Endris U (2011) Logic and social choice theory. In: Gupta A, van Benthem J (eds) Logic and philosophy, vol 30. College Publications, King’s College, London, pp 333–377Google Scholar
  17. Fine K (1985) Reasoning with arbitrary objects. Basil and Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  18. Fine A (1986) The shaky game: Einstein, realism and the quantum theory. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  19. Fine A (1996) Bohmian mechanics and quantum theory: an appraisal. Kluwer, Dordrecht. (Co-edited with J. Cushing and S. Goldstein)Google Scholar
  20. Freund I (1968) The study of chemical composition: an account of its method and historical development. Dover, New York, pp 2–30Google Scholar
  21. Friedman M (1953) The methodology of positive economics. In: Essays in positive economics. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  22. Galileo (1638) Dialogues concerning two new sciences pertaining to mechanics and local motion (trans: Crew H, Salvio de A). Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Gibbs J (1972) Sociological theory construction. Dryden, HinsdaleGoogle Scholar
  24. Griffiths PE (1997) What emotions really are. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gross L (ed) (1959) Symposium on sociological theory. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Gupta A (1989) The concrete and the abstract science: description versus explanation. J Indian Counc Philos Res VI(3):67–88Google Scholar
  27. Hacking I (1983) Representing and intervening: introductory topics in the philosophy of natural science. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hacking I (1991) A tradition of natural kinds. Philos Stud 61:109–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hardy GH (1940) Mathematician’s apology. University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Heath TL (1861–1940) The thirteen books of Euclid’s elements translated from the text of Heiberg with introduction and commentary. Three volumes. University Press, Cambridge, 1908. Second edition: University Press, Cambridge, 1925. Reprint: Dover Publication, New York, 1956Google Scholar
  31. Heath TL (1956) The thirteen books of Euclid’s elements, 3 vols. Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Hilary P (1975) The meaning of ‘meaning’. In: Hilary P (ed) Mind, language and reality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 215–271, 233Google Scholar
  33. Hilbert D (1902) Grundlagen der Geometrie (The foundations of geometry, trans. E.J. Townsend, Chicago)Google Scholar
  34. Hobbes T (1651) Leviathan, Revised Edition. Martinich AP, Battiste B (ed) Broadview Press, Peterborough, 2010Google Scholar
  35. Huggett N (2001) Physics meets philosophy at the Planck scale, (with Callender, C). Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  36. Hume D (1739/1888) Treatise of human nature (Selby-Bigge LA, ed). Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  37. Jones WT (1952) History of modern philosophy. Harcourt, Brace and World Levison, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Kincaid H (1996) Philosophical foundations of the social sciences. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  39. Kornblith H (1993) Inductive inference and its natural ground. MIT Press, Cambridge, p 7Google Scholar
  40. Kripke S (1971) Identity and necessity. In: Munitz MK (ed) Identity and individuation. New York University Press, New York, pp I35–I64Google Scholar
  41. Kripke S (1972) Naming and necessity. In: Davidson D, Harman G (eds) Semantics of natural language. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp 253–355, 763–769, 327Google Scholar
  42. Lakatos I (1976) Proofs and refutation. University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lipset SM (1994) Search of “scientific sociology”. In: “The state of American sociology,” Sociological Forum, vol 9. pp 199–220, 201Google Scholar
  44. Little D (1991) Varieties of social explanation. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  45. Little D (1993) On the scope and limits of generalizations in the social sciences. Synthese 97(2):183–207, Empiricism in the Philosophy of Social ScienceGoogle Scholar
  46. Little D (2003) The paradox of wealth and poverty. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  47. Locke J (1968) An essay concerning human understanding. Meridian Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Losee J (1972) A historical introduction to the philosophy of science. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Macnamara J (1991) Understanding induction. Br J Philos Sci 42(1):21–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Merton R (1949/1957/1968) Social theory and social structure. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Mill JS ([1843] 1905) A system of logic. Reprint. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Mill JS et al (1963) Collected works of John Stuart Mill. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  53. Mueller I (1981/2006) Philosophy of mathematics and deductive structure in Euclid’s elements. Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Mumford D (1999) A paper based on a lecture delivered at the conference “Mathematics towards the Third Millennium”, held at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, May 27–29, 1999Google Scholar
  55. Neugebauer O (1957) The exact sciences in antiquity, 2nd edn. Brown University Press, ProvidenceGoogle Scholar
  56. Neugebauer O (1975) A history of ancient mathematical astronomy. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Neurath O (1983) The unity of science. In: Philosophical papers 1913–46 (ed and trans: Cohen RS, Neurath M). Reidel, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  58. Newton I (1729) Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (mathematical principles of natural philosophy) (trans: Motte A (1729) revised by Cajori F (1962)), 2 vols. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  59. Parikh R (2002) Social software. Synthese 132(3):187–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Parsons T (1951) The social system. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Popper KR (1963a) Conjectures and refutations: the growth of scientific knowledge. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Popper K (1963b) Models, instruments and truth: the rationality principle in the social sciences. Karl Popper Collection, Hoover Institution Archives at Stanford University, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  63. Popper KR (1968) The logic of scientific discovery, 2nd edn. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Popper K (1970) Logic of the situation. In: Watkins JWN, Borger R, Cioffi F (eds) Explanation in the behavioural sciences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 206–208Google Scholar
  65. Quine WVO (1969) Natural kinds. In: Quine WVO (ed) Ontological relativity and other essays. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 114–138Google Scholar
  66. Robbins L (1932) Essay on the nature and significance of economic science, 2nd edn. London, 1936, pp 152–158Google Scholar
  67. Salmon (1967) The foundations of scientific inference. The University of Pittsburgh Press, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  68. Salmon W (1971) Statistical explanation. In: Salmon W (ed) Statistical explanation and statistical relevance. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, pp 29–87Google Scholar
  69. Searle J (1984) Minds, brains and science. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  70. Sen A (1970) Collective choice and social welfare. Holden-Day, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  71. Sen A (1977) Rational fools: a critique of the behavioral foundations of economic theory. Philos Pub Aff 6(4):317–344Google Scholar
  72. Sen A (1985) The standard of living: the tanner lecture on human values delivered at Cambridge University.
  73. Sen A (1986) Ethics and economics – Royer lecture at University of California Berkeley, Blackwell Publishing, First Published in 1987Google Scholar
  74. Sen A (1993) Positional objectivity. Philos Pub Aff 22(2):126–145Google Scholar
  75. Sen A (n.d.) Impossibility of paretian liberal. J Polit Econ 70(1):150–157Google Scholar
  76. Srinivas MN (1952) Religion and society among the coorgs of south India. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  77. Srinivas MN (1976) The remembered village. Oxford University Press, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  78. Stoll RR (1961) Set theory and logic. Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Strawson PF (1952/1962) Introduction to logical theory. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  80. Suppe F (1977) The structure of scientific theories, 2nd edn. The University of Illinois Press, Urbana, p 716Google Scholar
  81. Szabó Á (1978) The beginning of Greek mathematics. Reidel, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Toulmin S (1961) Foresight and understanding. Hutchinson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  83. von Mises L (1960) Epistemological problems of economics. Princeton, van NostrandGoogle Scholar
  84. von Mises L (1962) The ultimate foundation of economic science. Princeton, van NostrandGoogle Scholar
  85. Zetterberg HL (1954/1963/1965) On theory and verification in sociology. The Bedminster Press, TotowaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations