Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: In Musculoskeletal Disorders

  • Dhanasekaran Marappagounder
  • Sandeep Kumar Kotturu
  • Padmanav Behera
  • Rajanna Ajumeera
  • Ravikumar Rajappa


Conceptually and from a practical standpoint, bone marrow has been the most influential source of stem cells that offers a possibility of being used in a wide range of therapeutics. Clinical situations frequently demand stem cells with dependable quality and quantity to treat disorders of cellular degeneration. Challenges to bring advances to the clinical mount have expanded rapidly, engendering new perspectives concerning the identity, origin, and full therapeutic potential of various tissue-specific stem cells. Recent progress in stem cell biology has allowed researchers to investigate distinct stem cell populations in such divergent mammalian tissues and organs. Taking stem cells adaptable for regenerative medicine applications in adequate quantities at the right time is a challenge. In this respect, an emerging body of literature suggests that redundant adipose tissue serves as an abundant, accessible, and reliable source of stem cells that can be readily harvested with minimal risk to the patients. Rapidly accumulating evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC), especially from white adipose tissue, possess a far wider property of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity, thereby highlighting their importance and effectiveness in regenerative medicine [1–5]. Despite literature supporting the capacity and plasticity of ADSC for regenerative medicine, there are functional and heterogeneous discrepancies associated with it, thus presenting ADSC research a difficult and challenging task. Promising strides are continuously being made to unravel these challenges and realize the potential of ADSC. While much progress on adipose-derived stem cells has been made in the last few years, there remain a lot to be explored.


Muscular Dystrophy Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Multilineage Differentiation Calvarial Defect Congenital Muscular Dystrophy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Aust L, Devlin B, Foster SJ et al (2004) Yield of human adipose-derived adult stem cells from liposuction aspirates. Cytotherapy 6:7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gimble JM (2003) Adipose tissue-derived therapeutics. Expert Opin Biol Ther 3:705–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gimble JM, Guilak F (2003) Adipose-derived adult stem cells: isolation, characterization, and differentiation potential. Cytotherapy 5:362–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gimble JM, Katz AJ, Bunnell BA (2007) Adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine. Circ Res 100:1249–1260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zuk PA, Zhu M, Mizuno H et al (2001) Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Tissue Eng 7:211–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zuk PA, Zhu M, Ashjian P et al (2002) Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells. Mol Biol Cell 13:4279–4295PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jurgens W, Oedayrajsingh-Varma M, Helder M et al (2008) Effect of tissue-harvesting site on yield of stem cells derived from adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Cell Tissue Res 332:415–426PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Katz AJ, Tholpady A, Tholpady SS et al (2005) Cell surface and transcriptional characterization of human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells. Stem Cells 23:412–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mitchell JB, McIntosh K, Zvonic S et al (2006) Immunophenotype of human adipose-derived cells: temporal changes in stromal-associated and stem cell–associated markers. Stem Cells 24:376–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhu Y, Song K, Fan X et al (2008) Adipose-derived stem cell: a better stem cell than BMSC. Cell Biochem Funct 26:664–675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Ugarte DA, Morizono K, Elbarbary A et al (2003) Comparison of multi-lineage cells from human adipose tissue and bone marrow. Cells Tissues Organs 174:101–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee JA, Parrett BM, Conejero JA et al (2003) Biological alchemy: engineering bone and fat from fat-derived stem cells. Ann Plast Surg 50(6):610–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wosnitza M, Hemmrich K, Groger A et al (2007) Plasticity of human adipose stem cells to perform adipogenic and endothelial differentiation. Differentiation 75:12–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rodriguez A-M, Elabd C, Delteil FDR et al (2004) Adipocyte differentiation of multipotent cells established from human adipose tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 315:255–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rodriguez AM, Elabd C, Amri E-Z et al (2005) The human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells. Biochimie 87:125–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Elabd C, Chiellini C, Massoudi A et al (2007) Human adipose tissue-derived multipotent stem cells differentiate in vitro and in vivo into osteocyte-like cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 361:342–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruder SP, Jaiswal N, Haynesworth SE (1997) Growth kinetics, self-renewal, and the osteogenic potential of purified human mesenchymal stem cells during extensive subcultivation and following cryopreservation. J Cell Biochem 64:278–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ogawa R, Mizuno H, Hyakusoku H et al (2004) Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from GFP transgenic mice. J Nippon Med Sch 71(4):240–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Halvorsen YD, Franklin D, Bond AL et al (2001) Extracellular matrix mineralization and osteoblast gene expression by human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Tissue Eng 7(6):729–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dhanasekaran M, Indumathi S, Rashmi M, Rajkumar JS, Sudarsanam D (2012) Unravelling the retention of proliferation ad differentiation potency in extensive culture of human subcutaneous fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells in different media. Cell Prolif 45(6):516–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maddox JR, Liao X, Li F, Niyibizi C (2009) Effects of culturing on the stability of the putative murine adipose derived stem cells markers. Open Stem Cell J 1:54–61PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim WS, Park BS, Kim HK et al (2008) Evidence supporting antioxidant action of adipose-derived stem cells: protection of human dermal fibroblasts from oxidative stress. J Dermatol Sci 49(2):133–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim WS, Park BS, Park SH et al (2009) Antiwrinkle effect of adipose-derived stem cell: activation of dermal fibroblast by secretory factors. J Dermatol Sci 53(2):96–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kim WS, Park SH, Ahn SJ et al (2008) Whitening effect of adipose-derived stem cells: a critical role of TGF-β1. Biol Pharm Bull 31(4):606–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gir P, Brown SA, Oni G et al (2012) Fat grafting: evidence-based review on autologous fat harvesting, processing, reinjection, and storage. Plast Reconstr Surg 130:249–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Minn KW, Min KH, Chang H et al (2010) Effects of fat preparation methods on the viabilities of autologous fat grafts. Aesthetic Plast Surg 34(5):626–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yoshimura K, Sato K, Aoi N et al (2008) Cell-assisted lipotransfer for cosmetic breast augmentation: supportive use of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells. Aesthetic Plast Surg 32:48–55PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kamakura T, Ito K (2011) Autologous cell-enriched fat grafting for breast augmentation. Aesthetic Plast Surg 35:1022–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang L, Lu Y, Luo X et al (2012) Cell-assisted lipotransfer for breast augmentation: a report of 18 patients. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi 28:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yoshimura K, Asano Y, Aoi N et al (2010) Progenitor-enriched adipose tissue transplantation as rescue for breast implant complications. Breast J 16:169–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim M, Kim I, Lee SK et al (2011) Clinical trial of autologous differentiated adipocytes from stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. Dermatol Surg 37:750–759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bonnemann CG (2011) The collagen VI-related myopathies: muscle meets its matrix. Nat Rev Neurol 7:379–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Meregalli M, Farini A, Parolini D, Maciotta S, Torrente Y (2010) Stem cell therapies to treat muscular dystrophy: progress to date. BioDrugs 24:237–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hattori H, Sato M, Masuoka K et al (2004) Osteogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells as an alternative stem cell source. Cells Tissues Organs 178(1):2–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ogawa R, Mizuno H, Hyakusoku H et al (2004) Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from GFP transgenic mice. J Nippon Med Sch 71(4):240–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dezawa M, Ishikawa H, Itokazu Y et al (2005) Bone marrow stromal cells generate muscle cells and repair muscle degeneration. Science 309(5732):314–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fraser JK, Wulur I, Alsonso Z, Hedrick M (2006) Fat tissue: an underappreciated source of stem cells for biotechnology. Trends Biotechnol 24:150–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bacou F, El Andalousi RB, Daussin PA et al (2004) Transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells increases mass and functional capacity of damaged skeletal muscle. Cell Transplant 13(2):103–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Alexeev V, Arita M, Donahue A, Bonaldo P, Chu M-L, Igoucheva O (2014) Human adipose-derived stem cell transplantation as a potential therapy for collagen VI-related congenital muscular dystrophy. Stem Cell Res Ther 5:21PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wadagaki R, Mizuno D, Yamawaki-Ogata A et al (2011) Osteogenic induction of bone marrow-derived stromal cells on simvastatin-releasing, biodegradable, nano- to microscale fiber scaffolds. Ann Biomed Eng 39:1872–1881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cowan CM, Shi YY, Aalami OO et al (2004) Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects. Nat Biotechnol 22:560–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Haynesworth SE, Goshima J, Goldberg VM et al (1992) Characterization of cells with osteogenic potential from human marrow. Bone 13:81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lendeckel S, Jodicke A, Christophis P et al (2004) Autologous stem cells (adipose) and fibrin glue used to treat widespread traumatic calvarial defects: case report. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 32:370–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hattori H, Sato M, Masuoka K et al (2004) Osteogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells as an alternative stem cell source. Cells Tissues Organs 178(1):2–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hicok KC, Du Laney TV, Zhou YS et al (2004) Human adipose-derived adult stem cells produce osteoid in vivo. Tissue Eng 10(3–4):371–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tissue Genesis Cell Isolation System. Tissue Genesis Incorporated. February 10th, 2009. Available at:
  47. 47.
    Cytori’s Celution® 700 System to be Regulated as a Medical Device by U.S. FDA. 20 Jul 2009. Available at:
  48. 48.
    Jaiswal RK, Jaiswal N, Bruder SP et al (2000) Adult human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to the osteogenic or adipogenic lineage is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem 275:9645–9652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gonzalez-Rey E, Gonzalez MA, Varela N et al (2010) Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce inflammatory and T cell responses and induce regulatory T cells in vitro in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 69:241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fraser JK, Wulur I, Alfonso Z et al (2007) Differences in stem and progenitor cell yield in different subcutaneous adipose tissue depots. Cytotherapy 9:459–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dragoo JL, Samimi B, Zhu M et al (2003) Tissue-engineered cartilage and bone using stem cells from human infrapatellar fat pads. J Bone Joint Surg Br 85(5):740–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Guilak F, Awad HA, Fermor B et al (2004) Adipose-derived adult stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Biorheology 41(3-4):389–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Awad HA, Wickham MQ, Leddy HA et al (2004) Chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived adult stem cells in agarose, alginate, and gelatin scaffolds. Biomaterials 25(16):3211–3222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fang B, Song Y, Liao L et al (2007) Favorable response to human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease. Transplant Proc 39:3358–3362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhanasekaran Marappagounder
    • 1
  • Sandeep Kumar Kotturu
    • 2
  • Padmanav Behera
    • 3
  • Rajanna Ajumeera
    • 3
  • Ravikumar Rajappa
    • 4
  1. 1.Stem Cell Banking & ResearchRee Laboratories Private LimitedMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Molecular Biology UnitNational Institute of Nutrition (ICMR)Secunderabad, HyderabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of Stem Cell ResearchNational Institute of Nutrition (ICMR)Secunderabad, HyderabadIndia
  4. 4.Harvard Medical SchoolDr. Spector’s Lab-VA Medical CenterJamaica PlainUSA

Personalised recommendations