Basic Principles of Cyclotron and Production of Positron-Emitting Isotopes

  • Birendra Kishore Das


Cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator which accelerates charged particles using a high-frequency, alternating voltage (potential difference). A perpendicular magnetic field of constant magnitude and direction causes the particles to spiral almost in a circle so that they re-encounter the accelerating voltage many times. A cyclotron body consists of electrodes, called “dees” because of their shape, in a vacuum chamber. This vacuum chamber is flat and sits in a narrow gap between poles of a large magnet which creates a perpendicular magnetic field. A stream of charged particles is fed into the center of the chamber and a high-frequency alternating voltage is applied across the electrodes. This voltage alternately attracts and repels the charged particles causing them to accelerate. The magnetic field moves the particles in a circular path and, as they gain more energy from the accelerating voltage, they spiral outwards until they reach the outer edge of the chamber.


Positron Emission Tomography Positron Emission Tomography Scanning Circular Path Uniform Electric Field Clinical Positron Emission Tomography 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

For Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Lawrence EO. The Evolution of the cyclotron. Noblel Lecture. 1951.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chao AW, Mess KH, Tigner M, Zimmermann F, editors. Handbook of accelerator physics and engineering. 2nd edn. World Scientific Publishing Company. 2013.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pillai MRA. Cyclotron produced radionuclides: physical characteristics and production methods, IAEA technical report no. 468. Vienna: 2009.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hichwa RD, et al. Design of target systems for production of PET nuclides. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res. 1989;B40/41:1110–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jacobson MS, Hung JC, Mays TL, Mullan BP. The planning and design of a new PET radiochemistry facility. Mol Imaging Biol. 2002;4:119–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ruth TJ, et al. Radionuclide production for the biosciences. Nucl Med Biol. 1989;16(4):323–36.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nuclear MedicineUtkal Institute of Medical SciencesBhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations