Computer-Aided Study of Molecular Microbiology
Ribosomes are essential components of the protein synthesis machinery and therefore are ubiquitously distributed and functionally conserved in all organisms. Ribosomes consist of two major subunits—the small ribosomal subunit reads the mRNA, while the large subunit joins amino acids to form a polypeptide chain. Each subunit is composed of one or more ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules and a variety of proteins. In prokaryotes the complete 70S monosome comprises larger 50S unit that includes 5S and 23S rRNA, plus a smaller 30S unit that includes 16S rRNA. In all the gene pools, the 16S rRNA gene is the most conserved and least variable DNA sequence in all cells. 16S rDNA gene sequences are highly conserved within living organisms of the same genus and species, but that they differ between organisms of other genera and species. This RNA is not translated to protein; the ribosomal RNA is the active component. Thus, it refers to the “rRNA gene” or “rDNA” to designate the DNA in the genome that produces the ribosomal RNA. 16S rRNA genes lack the inter-species horizontal gene transfer found with many prokaryotic genes. They contain diagnostic variable regions interspersed among highly conserved regions of primary and secondary structures, permitting phylogenetic comparisons to be inferred over a broad range of evolutionary distance. The sequence of 16S rRNA gene and its analysis is a molecular figure print in the identification of bacteria. The sequences data need to be processed prior to submission. The sequence data can be processed by a number of available tools. Nearly a dozen formats are available for sequences. Formats were designed so as to be able to hold the sequence data and other information about the sequence. Each sequencer and analysis package stores data in its own format. An efficient sequencer can give a maximum of 1000 nucleotides per run. The aim of the current study is to edit the 16S rRNA gene sequence using BioEdit v7.2.5.