Advertisement

Harnessing Plant-Microbe Interactions for Enhanced Protection Against Phytopathogens

  • Sandhya Mishra
  • Akanksha Singh
  • Chetan Keswani
  • Amrita Saxena
  • B. K. Sarma
  • H. B. Singh
Chapter

Abstract

Beneficial plant-microbe interactions have utmost importance for enhancing plant growth, improving soil structure, and managing plant diseases. Not surprisingly, such mutual interactions, where plants provide nourishment to rhizospheric microbes and in return microbes help in facilitating plant growth and stress amelioration, actually lay the foundation of sustainable agriculture. To cope with the major challenge of pathogen attack, beneficial rhizospheric microbes have proven their efficacy by induced systemic resistance (ISR). Therefore, such microbes are increasingly used in the form of biofertilizers and biopesticides. Moreover, such plant-microbe interactions elicit a range of defense-responsive activities in order to combat the pathogen challenge. The main microbes-mediated defense strategies adopted by plants include activation of antioxidant status of the plant by reprogramming defense-related enzymes, modulation of quorum sensing phenomenon, and activation of phenylpropanoid pathway leading to phenolics production, lignin deposition, and transgenerational defense response. In this chapter, we highlight the relevance of beneficial interactions between plant and microbes in enhancing plants’ innate immune system against pathogen attack. This review provides a better understanding of the recent advances and major outcome of positive plant-microbe interactions and linking their relevance to plant defense response.

Keywords

Defense Response Quorum Sense Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Phenylpropanoid Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

HBS and BKS are grateful to the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, for providing financial support (BT/PR5990/AGR/5/587/2012). SM is thankful to UGC for awarding Dr. D.S. Kothari Postdoctoral Fellowship.

References

  1. Alvarez MV, Moreira MR, Ponce A (2012) Antiquorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of natural agents with potential use in food. J Food Saf 32:379–387Google Scholar
  2. Asada K (1999) The water–water cycle in chloroplasts: scavenging of active oxygen and dissipation of excess photons. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:601–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Asada K, Takahashi M (1987) Production and scavenging of active oxygen in photosynthesis. In: Kyle DJ, Osmond CB, Arntzen CJ (eds) Photoinhibition. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 227–287Google Scholar
  4. Bais HP, Weir TL, Perry LG, Gilroy S, Vivanco JM (2006) The role of root exudates in rhizosphere interactions with plants and other organisms. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:234–266Google Scholar
  5. Bakker PAHM, Pieterse CMJ, Van Loon LC (2007) Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent pseudomonas spp. Phytopathology 97:239–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Balakrishnan N, Subramanian KS (2012) Mycorrhizal symbiosis and bioavailability of micronutrients in maize grain. Maydica 57:129–138Google Scholar
  7. Banerjee M, Yesmin L (2002) Sulfur-oxidizing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for enhanced canola performance. US Patent 07491535Google Scholar
  8. Bashan Y, Holguin G (1998) Proposal for the division of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria into two classifications: biocontrol-PGPB (plant growth-promoting bacteria) and PGPB. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1225–1228Google Scholar
  9. Berendsen RL, Pieterse CMJ, Bakker PAHM (2012) The rhizosphere microbiome and plant health. Trends Plant Sci 17:478–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berg G (2009) Plantmicrobe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 84:11–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berg G, Smalla K (2009) Plant species and soil type cooperatively shape the structure and function of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 68:1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernards MA, Lewis NG (1998) The macromolecular aromatic domain in suberized tissue: a changing paradigm. Phytochemistry 47:915–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boerjan W, Ralph J, Baucher M (2003) Lignin biosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Biol 54:519–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowler C, Slooten L, Vandenbranden S, De Rycke R, Botterman J, Sybesma C, Van Montagu M, Inzé D (1991) Manganese superoxide dismutase can reduce cellular damage mediated by oxygen radicals in transgenic plants. EMBO J 10:1723–1732PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Cassán FD, García de Salamone I (2008) Azospirillum sp.: cell physiology, plant interactions and agronomic research in Argentina. Asociación Argentina de Microbiología, Argentina, p 266Google Scholar
  16. Cazale AC, Droillard MJ, Wilson C, Heberle-Bors E, Barbier-Brygoo H, Laurière C (1999) MAP kinase activation by hypo-osmotic stress of tobacco cell suspensions: towards the oxidative burst response? Plant J 19:297–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark RB, Zobel RW, Zeto SK (1999) Effects of mycorrhizal fungus isolates on mineral acquisition by Panicum virgatum acidic soils. Mycorrhiza 9:167–176Google Scholar
  18. Conrath U (2011) Molecular aspects of defence priming. Trends Plant Sci 16(10):524–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Contreras-Cornejo HA, Macias-Rodriguez L, Cortes-Penagos C, Lopez-Bucio J (2009) Trichoderma virens, a plant beneficial fungus, enhances biomass production and promotes lateral root growth through an auxin-dependent mechanism in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 149:1579–1592PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Crépin A, Barbey C, Beury-Cirou A, Hélias V, Taupin L, Reverchon S, Nasser W, Faure D, Dufour A, Orange N, Feuilloley M, Heurlier K, Burini JF, Latour X (2012a) Quorum sensing signaling molecules produced by reference and emerging soft-rot bacteria (Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp.). PLoS One 7(4):e35176PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Crépin A, Barbey C, Cirou A, Tanniéres M, Orange N, Orange N, Feuilloley M, Dessaux Y, Burini JF, Faure D, Latour X (2012b) Biological control of pathogen communication in the rhizosphere: a novel approach applied to potato soft rot due to Pectobacterium atrosepticum. Plant Soil 358:27–37Google Scholar
  22. Dat J, Vandenabeele S, Vranová E, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Breusegem F (2000) Dual action of the active oxygen species during plant stress responses. Cell Mol Life Sci 57:779–795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Davin LB, Lewis NG (2000) Dirigent proteins and dirigent sites explain the mystery of specificity of radical precursor coupling in lignan and lignin biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 123:453–462PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. De Vleeschauwer D, Höfte M (2007) Using Serratia plymuthica to control fungal pathogens of plant. CAB Rev 2:46Google Scholar
  25. De Werra P, Péchy-Tarr M, Keel C, Maurhofer M (2009) Role of gluconic acid production in the regulation of biocontrol traits of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:4162–4174PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Desikan R, A-HMackerness S, Hancock JT, Neill SJ (2001) Regulation of the Arabidopsis transcriptosome by oxidative stress. Plant Physiol 127:159–172PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Diallo S, Crépin A, Barbey C, Orange N, Burini JF, Latour X (2011) Mechanisms and recent advances in biological control mediated through the potato rhizosphere. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 75:351–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dicke M, Hilker M (2003) Induced plant defences: from molecular biology to evolutionary ecology. Basic Appl Ecol 4:3–14Google Scholar
  29. Dixon RA, Paiva N (1995) Stress induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. Plant Cell 7:1085–1097PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Djonovic S, Pozo MJ, Dangott LJ, Howell CR, Kenerley CM (2006) Sm1, a proteinaceous elicitor secreted by the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens induces plant defense responses and systemic resistance. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 8:838–853Google Scholar
  31. Djonovic S, Vargas WA, Kolomiets MV, Horndeski M, Wiest A, Kenerley CM (2007) A proteinaceous elicitor Sm1 from the beneficial fungus Trichoderma virens is required for induced systemic resistance in maize. Plant Physiol 145:875–889PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Dobbelare S, Vanderleydern J, Okon Y (2003) Plant-growth promoting effects of diazotrophs in the rhizosphere. Crit Rev Plant Sci 22:107–149Google Scholar
  33. Dong YH, Wang LH, Xu JL, Zhang HB, Zhang XF, Zhang LH (2001) Quenching quorum-sensing-dependent bacterial infection by an N-acyl homoserine lactonase. Nature 411:813–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Durrant WE, Dong X (2004) Systemic acquired resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 42:185–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Friend J (1976) Lignification in infected tissue. In: Friend J, Threfall DR (eds) Biochemical aspects of plantparasite relationships. Academic, London, pp 291–303Google Scholar
  36. Glick BR (2005) Modulation of plant ethylene levels by the bacterial enzyme ACC deaminase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 252:1–7Google Scholar
  37. Gottlieb S, Pelczar MJ (1951) Microbiological aspects of lignin degradation. Bacteriol Rev 15:55–76PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Gram L, Grossart H, Schlingloff A, Kiørboe T (2002) Possible quorum sensing in marine snow bacteria: production of acylated homoserine lactones by roseobacter strains isolated from marine snow. Appl Environ Microbiol 8(68):4111–4116Google Scholar
  39. Grant JJ, Loake GJ (2000) Role of reactive oxygen intermediates and cognate redox signaling in disease resistance. Plant Physiol 124:21–29PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Harman G, Shoresh M (2007) The mechanisms and applications of opportunistic plant symbionts. In: Vurro M, Gressel J (eds) Novel biotechnologies for biocontrol agent enhancement and management. Springer, Amsterdam, pp 131–155Google Scholar
  41. Harman GE, Howell CR, Viterbo A, Chet I, Lorito M (2004) Trichoderma species – opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nat Rev Microbiol 2:43–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Harrison MJ (1999) Molecular and cellular aspects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 50:361–389Google Scholar
  43. Harrison MJ (2005) Signaling in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Annu Rev Microbiol 59:19–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hatfield R, Vermerris W (2001) Lignin formation in plants. The dilemma of linkage specificity. Plant Physiol 126:1351–1357PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Hayatsu M, Tago K, Saito M (2008) Various players in the nitrogen cycle: diversity and functions of the microorganisms involved in nitrification and denitrification. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 54:33–45Google Scholar
  46. Howell CR, Hanson LE, Stipanovic RD, Puckhaber LS (2000) Induction of terpenoid synthesis in cotton roots and control of Rhizoctonia solani by seed treatment with Trichoderma virens. Phytopathology 90:248–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hummerschmidt R (1999) Phytoalexins: what have we learned after 60 years? Annu Rev Phytopathol 37:285–306Google Scholar
  48. Jain A, Singh S, Sarma BK, Singh HB (2012) Microbial consortium mediated reprogramming of defence network in pea to enhance tolerance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. J Appl Microbiol 112:537–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jetiyanon K (2007) Defensive-related enzyme response in plants treated with a mixture of Bacillus strains (IN937a and IN937b) against different pathogens. Biol Control 42:178–185Google Scholar
  50. Jeun YC, Park KS, Kim CH, Fowler WD, Kloepper JW (2004) Cytological observations of cucumber plants during induced resistance elicited by rhizobacteria. Biol Control 29:34–42Google Scholar
  51. Jones JDG, Dangl JL (2006) The plant immune system. Nature 444:323–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kamilova F, Validov S, Azarova T, Mulders I, Lugtenberg B (2005) Enrichment for enhanced competitive plant root tip colonizers selects for a new class of biocontrol bacteria. Environ Microbiol 7:1809–1817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kamilova F, Kravchenko LV, Shaposhnikov AI, Makarova N, Lugtenberg BJJ (2006) Effects of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365on the composition of organic acids and sugars in tomato root exudate. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 19:1121–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Keswani C, Mishra S, Sarma BK, Singh SP, Singh HB (2014) Unraveling the efficient applications of secondary metabolites of various Trichoderma spp. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:533–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kim JM, To TK, Seki M (2012) An epigenetic integrator: new insights into genome regulation, environmental stress responses and developmental controls by histone deacetylase 6. Plant Cell Physiol 53(5):794–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kloepper JW, Leong J, Teintze M, Schroth MN (1980) Enhanced plant growth by siderophores produced by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Nature 286:885–886Google Scholar
  57. Kloepper JW, Ryu CM, Zhang SA (2004) Induced systemic resistance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology 94:1259–1266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lambert DH, Cole H, Baker DE (1980) The role of boron in plant response to mycorrhizal infection. Plant Soil 57:431–438Google Scholar
  59. Lavania M, Chauhan PS, Chauhan SVS, Singh HB, Nautiyal CS (2006) Induction of plant defense enzymes and phenolics by treatments with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Serratia marcescens NBRI 1213. Curr Microbiol 52:363–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lewis NG, Yamamoto E (1990) Lignin: occurrence, biogenesis and biodegradation. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 41:455–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Liu A, Hamel C, Hamilton RI, Ma BL, Smith DL (2000) Acquisition of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe by mycorrhizal maize (Zea mays L.) growth in soil at different P and micronutrient levels. Mycorrhiza 9:331–336Google Scholar
  62. Lugtenberg BJJ, Chin-A-Woeng TFC, Bloemberg GV (2002) Microbe– plant interactions: principles and mechanisms. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81:373–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Luna E, Ton J (2012) The epigenetic machinery controlling transgenerational systemic acquired resistance. Plant Signal Behav 7:615–618PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Luna E, Bruce TJA, Roberts MR, Flors V, Ton J (2012) Next-generation systemic acquired resistance. Plant Physiol 158:844–853PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Mäe A, Montesano M, Koiv V, Palva ET (2001) Transgenic plants producing the bacterial pheromone N-acyl-homoserine lactone exhibit enhanced resistance to the bacterial phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 14:1035–1042Google Scholar
  66. Mandal S, Mitra A (2007) Reinforcement of cell wall in roots of Lycopersicon esculentum through induction of phenolic compounds and lignin by elicitors. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 71:201–209Google Scholar
  67. Meziane H, Van der Sluis I, Van Loon LC, Ho¨fte M, Bakker PAHM (2005) Determinants of Pseudomonas putida WCS358 involved in inducing systemic resistance in plants. Mol Plant Pathol 6:177–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7:405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Molina L, Constantinescu F, Michel L, Reimmann C, Duffy B, Defago G (2003) Degradation of pathogen quorum-sensing molecules by soil bacteria: a preventive and curative biological control mechanism. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 45:71–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Morrissey JP, Dow JM, Mark L, O’Gara F (2004) Are microbes at the root of a solution to world food production? EMBO Rep 5:922–926PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Nicholson RL, Hammerschmidt R (1992) Phenolic compounds and their role in disease resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 30:369–389Google Scholar
  72. Ongena M, Jourdan E, Scha¨ fer M, Kech C, Budzikiewicz H, Luxen A, Thonart P (2005) Isolation of an N-alkylated benzylamine derivative from Pseudomonas putida BTP1 as elicitor of induced systemic resistance in bean. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 18:562–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ongena M, Jourdan E, Adam A, Paquot M, Brans A, Joris B, Arpigny JL, Thonart P (2007) Surfactin and fengycin lipopeptides of Bacillus subtilis as elicitors of induced systemic resistance in plants. Environ Microbiol 9:1084–1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Park KS, Kloepper JW (2000) Activation of PR-1a promoter by rhizobacteria which induce systemic resistance in tobacco against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Biol Control 18:2–9Google Scholar
  75. Pei ZM, Murata Y, Benning G, Thomine S, Klüsener B, Allen GJ, Grill E, Schroeder JI (2000) Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signaling in guard cells. Nature 406:731–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Pierson EA, Wood D, Cannon JAW, Blachere FM, Pierson LS (1998a) Interpopulation signaling via N-acyl-homoserine lactones among bacteria in the wheat rhizosphere. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 11:1078–1084Google Scholar
  77. Pierson LS, Wood DW, Pierson EA (1998b) Homoserine lactone-mediated gene regulation in plant-associated bacteria. Annu Rev Phytopathol 36:207–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Pieterse CMJ (2012) Prime time for transgenerational defense. Plant Physiol 158:545PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Pieterse CM, Dicke M (2007) Plant interactions with microbes and insects: from molecular mechanisms to ecology. Trends Plant Sci 12:564–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Pieterse CMJ, van der Does D, Zamioudis C, Leon-Reyes A, van Wees SCM (2012) Hormonal modulation of plant immunity. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 28:489–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Pineda A, Zheng SJ, van Loon JJA, Pieterse CMJ, Dicke M (2010) Helping plants to deal with insects: the role of beneficial soil-borne microbes. Trends Plant Sci 15:507–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Pozo MJ, Azcon-Aguilar C (2007) Unraveling mycorrhiza-induced resistance. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:393–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ran LX, Li ZN, Wu GJ, Van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM (2005) Induction of systemic resistance against bacterial wilt in Eucalyptus urophylla by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Eur J Plant Pathol 113:59–70Google Scholar
  84. Ride JP (1978) The role of cell wall alterations in resistance to fungi. Ann Appl Biol 89:302–306Google Scholar
  85. Ryan RP, Monchy S, Cardinale M, Taghavi S, Crossman L, Avison MB, Berg G, van der Lelie D, Dow JM (2009) Versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas. Nat Microbiol Rev 7:514–525Google Scholar
  86. Ryu CM, Farag MA, Hu CH, Reddy MS, Wie HX, Paré PW, Kloepper JW (2003) Bacterial volatiles promote growth of Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100:4927–4932PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Ryu CM, Farag MA, Hu CH, Reddy MS, Kloepper JW, Pare’ PW (2004) Bacterial volatiles induce systemic resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 134:1017–1026PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Saleem M, Arshad M, Hussain S, Bhatti AS (2007) Perspective of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase in stress agriculture. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 34:635–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Schrey SD, Tarkka MT (2008) Friends and foes: Streptomycetes as modulators of plant disease and symbiosis. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 94:11–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Schuhegger R, Ihring A, Gantner S, Bahnweg G, Knappe C, Hartmann A, Langebartels C (2006) Induction of systemic resistance in tomato by N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone-producing rhizosphere bacteria. Plant Cell Environ 29:909–918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Sederoff RR, MacKay JJ, Ralph J, Hatfield RD (1999) Unexpected variation in lignin. Curr Opin Plant Biol 2:145–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Serfling A, Wirsel SGR, Lind V, Deising HB (2007) Performance of the biocontrol fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat under greenhouse and field conditions. Phytopathology 97:523–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Shoresh M, Harman GE, Mastouri F (2010) Induced systemic resistance and plant responses to fungal biocontrol agents. Annu Rev Phytopathol 48:21–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Silva HSA, Romeiro RDS, Macagnan D, Halfeld-Vieira BDA, Pereira MCB, Mounteer A (2004) Rhizobacterial induction of systemic resistance in tomato plants non-specific protection and increase in enzyme activities. Biol Control 29:288–295Google Scholar
  95. Singh A, Sarma BK, Upadhyay RS, Singh HB (2013) Compatible rhizosphere microbes mediated alleviation of biotic stress in chickpea through enhanced antioxidant and phenylpropanoid activities. Microbiol Res 168:33–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Singhai PK, Sarma BK, Srivastava JS (2011) Biological management of common scab of potato through Pseudomonas species and vermicompost. Biol Control 57:150–157Google Scholar
  97. Slaughter A, Daniel X, Flors V, Luna E, Hohn B, Mauch-Mani B (2012) Descendants of primed Arabidopsis plants exhibit resistance to biotic stress. Plant Physiol 158:835–843PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Smith SE, Jakobsen I, Gronlund M, Smith FA (2011) Roles of arbuscular mycorrhizas in plant phosphorus nutrition: Interactions between pathways of phosphorus uptake in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots have important implications for understanding and manipulating plant phosphorus acquisition. Plant Physiol 156:1050–1057PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Spaink HP (2000) Root nodulation and infection factors produced by rhizobial bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 54:257–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Stein E, Molitor A, Kogel KH, Waller F (2008) Systemic resistance in Arabidopsis conferred by the mycorrhizal fungus Piriformospora indica requires jasmonic acid signaling and the cytoplasmic function of NPR1. Plant Cell Physiol 49:1747–1751PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Tran H, Ficke A, Asiimwe T, Ho¨fte M, Raaijmakers JM (2007) Role of the cyclic lipopeptide massetolide A in biological control of Phytophthora infestans and in colonization of tomato plants by Pseudomonas fluorescens. New Phytol 175:731–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Truchado P, Tomás-Barberán F, Larrosa M, Allende A (2012) Food phytochemicals act as quorum sensing inhibitors reducing production and/or degrading autoinducers of Yersinia enterocolítica and Erwinia carotovora. Food Control 24:78–85Google Scholar
  103. Unno Y, Okubo K, Wasaki J, Shinano T, Osaki M (2005) Plant growth promotion abilities and microscale bacterial dynamics in the rhizosphere of lupin analysed by phytate utilization ability. Environ Microbiol 7:396–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Van der Putten WH, Vet LM, Harvey JA, Wäckers FL (2001) Linking above- and belowground multitrophic interactions of plants, herbivores, pathogens, and their antagonists. Trends Ecol Evol 16:547–554Google Scholar
  105. Van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM, Pieterse CMJ (1998) Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria. Annu Rev Phytopathol 36:453–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Van Oosten VR, Bodenhausen N, Reymond P, Van Pelt JA, Van Loon LC, Dicke M, Pieterse CMJ (2008) Differential effectiveness of microbially induced resistance against herbivorous insects in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 21:919–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. van Rhijn P, Vanderleyden J (1995) The Rhizobium-plant symbiosis. Microbiol Rev 59:124–142Google Scholar
  108. van Wees SCM, de Swart EAM, van Pelt JA, van Loon LC, Pieterse CMJ (2000) Enhancement of induced disease resistance by simultaneous activation of salicylate – and jasmonate-dependent defense pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8711–8716PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Vance CP, Anderson JO, Sherwood RT (1976) Soluble and cell wall peroxidases in reed canary grass in relation to disease resistance and localized lignin formation. Plant Physiol 57:920–922PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Vinale F, Sivasithamparam K, Ghisalberti EL, Marra R, Barbetti MJ, Li H, Woo SL, Lorito M (2008) A novel role for Trichoderma secondary metabolites in the interactions with plants. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 72:80–86Google Scholar
  111. Whitmore FW (1978) Lignin-carbohydrate complex formed in isolated cell walls of callus. Phytochemistry 17:421–425Google Scholar
  112. Woo SL, Scala F, Ruocco M, Lorito M (2006) The molecular biology of the interactions between Trichoderma spp., phytopathogenic fungi and plants. Phytopathology 96:181–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Yates IE, Bacon CW, Hinton DM (1997) Effects of endophytic infection by Fusarium moniliforme on corn growth and cellular morphology. Plant Dis 81:723–728Google Scholar
  114. Zhang H, Xie X, Kim MS, Kornyeyev DA, Holaday S, Par’e PW (2008) Soil bacteria augment Arabidopsis photosynthesis by decreasing glucose sensing and abscisic acid levels in planta. Plant J 56:264–273PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandhya Mishra
    • 1
  • Akanksha Singh
    • 1
  • Chetan Keswani
    • 1
  • Amrita Saxena
    • 1
  • B. K. Sarma
    • 1
  • H. B. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mycology and Plant PathologyInstitute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations