Advertisement

Biotrophic Plant-Microbe Interactions for Land Reclamation and Sustainable Agriculture Development

  • Vivek Kumar
  • Priyanku Teotia
  • Sandeep Bisht
  • Shivesh Sharma
Chapter

Abstract

Anthropogenic undesired actions intended at agricultural and technological advancement have led to the non-judicious creation and usages of various chemicals. Contamination of soil and formation of barren lands are a worldwide crisis, and reclamation of this using chemical or physical means is not a solution. The negative aspects of pollutants in the soil and environment lead to diverse impact on human beings, flora and fauna also. This undesirable facet relies on the pollution type, its severity and nature. The hunt for alternative methods for digging and incineration to clean contaminated sites resulted in the application of bioremediation techniques, but this is not cost-effective. The cost-effective and viable mode could be efficient utilization of plant-microbe interaction (PMI) pair in agricultural land reclamation. In the process of active rhizosphere functioning, root exudates of plant lead to proliferation, survival, and working of microorganisms, which subsequently results in a more efficient degradation of contaminants. The plant root system actually helps to spread microbes in the soil and assists in penetrating otherwise hard soil layers and surfaces. The inoculation of pollutant-degrading bacteria on plant seed can be an important additive to improve the efficacy of bioremediation or plant bioaugmentation. Biotrophic PMI is promising, a relatively novel technique employed in reclamation of the contaminated or degraded agricultural soils. It may be defined as the exploitation of efficient microbes along with their host plants to utilize or remove, obliterate, or impound hazardous chemicals at a particular site. This technology has so far been used experimentally to take away toxic heavy metals and other pollutants from contaminated soil; expansion of its capacity for applications to remove and degrade organic pollutants in the environment is the next phase. This chapter presents an overview of present aspects of microbes-plant relations in reclamation for feasible and viable augmentation of agriculture land biodiversity.

Keywords

Soil Erosion Agricultural Soil Land Degradation Petroleum Hydrocarbon Arbuscular Mycorrhizae 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adriano DC, Page AL, Elseewi AA, Chang AC, Straughan I (1980) Utilization and disposal of fly ash and other coal residues in terrestrial ecosystems: a review. J Environ Qual 9:333–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aroca R, Ruíz LJM (2009) Induction of plant tolerance to semi-arid environments by beneficial soil microorganisms (a review). In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Climate change, intercropping, pest control and beneficial microorganisms, sustainable agriculture reviews 2. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 121–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aroca R, Vernieri P, Ruiz LJM (2008) Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Lactuca sativa plants exhibit contrasting responses to exogenous ABA during drought stress and recovery. J Exp Bot 59:2029–2041PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Arzanesh M, Alikhani H, Khavazi K, Rahimian H, Miransari M (2011) Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth enhancement by Azospirillum sp. under drought stress. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baum C, Hrynkiewicz K, Leinweber P, Meißner R (2006) Heavy-metal mobilization and uptake by mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal willows (Salix dasyclados). J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 169:516–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ben SI, Albacete A, Martı’nez AC, Haouala R, Labidi N, Zribi F, Martinez V, Pe’rez-Alfocea F, Abdelly C (2009) Response of nitrogen fixation in relation to nodule carbohydrate metabolism in Medicago ciliaris lines subjected to salt stress. J Plant Physiol 166:77–88Google Scholar
  7. Bisht S, Pandey P, Sood A, Sharma S, Bisht NS (2010) Biodegradation of naphthalene and anthracene by chemo-tactically active rhizobacteria of Populus deltoids. Braz J Microbiol 41:922–930PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Bisht S, Pandey P, Kaur G, Aggarwal H, Sood A, Sharma S, Kumar V, Bisht NS (2014) Utilization of endophytic strain Bacillus sp. SBER3 for biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil model system. Eur J Soil Biol 60:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blanco H, Lal R (2008) Principles of soil conservation and management [E-book]. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  10. Bot AJ, Nachterhaele RO, Young A (2000) Land resource potential and constraints at regional and country levels. Land and Water Development Division, FAO, UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  11. Carvalhais LC, Dennis PG, Fedoseyenko D, Hajirezaei MR, Borriss R, Von WN (2011) Root exudation of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids by maize as affected by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and iron deficiency. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 174:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Catterson TM, Gulick FA, Resch T (1987) Rethinking forestry strategy in Africa: experiences drawn from USAID activities. Desertification Control Bull 33:31–37Google Scholar
  13. Chen YP, Rekha PD, Arun AB, Shen FT, Lai WA, Young CC (2006) Phosphate solubilizing bacteria from subtropical soil and their tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities. Appl Soil Ecol 34:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cho SM, Kang BR, Han SH, Anderson AJ, Park JY, Lee Y, Cho BH, Yang KY, Ryu CM, Kim YC (2008) 2R,3R-butanediol, a bacterial volatile produced by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, is involved in induction of systemic tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 21:1067–1075PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen A, Bottini R, Piccoli P (2008) Azospirillum brasilense Sp. produces ABA in chemically-defined culture medium and increases ABA content in Arabidopsis plant. Plant Growth Regul 54:97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornish K, Zeevaart JAD (1988) Phenotypic expression of wild-type tomato and three wilty mutants in relation to abscisic acid accumulation in roots and leaflets of reciprocal grafts. Plant Physiol 87:190–194PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Creus CM, Graziano M, Casanovas EM, Pereyra MA, Simontacchi M, Puntarulo S, Arassi CA, Lamattina L (2005) Nitric oxide is involved in the Azospirillum brasilense-induced lateral root formation in tomato. Planta 221(2):297–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dobbelaere S, Croonenborghs A, Thys A, Vande Broek A, Vanderleyden J (1999) Phytostimulatory effect of Azospirillum brasilense wild type and mutant strains altered in IAA production on wheat. Plant Soil 212:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Doran JW, Linn DM (1994) Microbial ecology of conservation management systems. In: Hatfield JL, Stewart BA (eds) Soil biology: effects on soil quality. (Advances in soil science). Lewis, Boca Raton, pp 1–27Google Scholar
  20. Esechie HA, Al-Saidi A, Al-Khanjari S (2002) Effect of sodium chloride salinity on seedling emergence in chickpea. J Agron Crop Sci 188:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Euliss K, Ho C, Schwab AP, Rock S, Banks MK (2008) Greenhouse and field assessment of phytoremediation for petroleum contaminants in a riparian zone. Bioresour Technol 99:1961–1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fomina MA, Alexander IJ, Colpaert JV, Gadd GM (2005) Solubilization of toxic metal minerals and metal tolerance of mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Biol Biochem 37:851–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garau ML, Dalmau JL, Felipo MT (1991) Nitrogen mineralization in soil amended with sewage sludge and fly ash. Biol Fert Soils 12:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghanem ME, Albacete A, Smigocki AC, Frébort I, Pospíšilová H, Martínez-Andújar C, Acosta M, Sánchez-Bravo J, Lutts S, Dodd IC, Alfocea FP (2011) Root-synthesised cytokinins improve shoot growth and fruit yield in salinised tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). J Exp Bot 62:125–140PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Hammer EC, Nasr H, Pallon J, Olsson PA, Wallander H (2011) Elemental composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at high salinity. Mycorrhiza 21:117–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Herrera MMJ, Steinkellner S, Vierheilig H, Ocampo JA, Garcı’a-Garrido JM (2007) Abscisic acid determines arbuscule development and functionality in tomato arbuscular mycorrhiza. New Phytol 175:554–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoekstra FA, Crow JH, Crowe LM, Van Roekel T, Vermeer T (1992) Do phospholipids and sucrose determine membrane phase transitions in dehydrating pollen species? Plant Cell Environ 15:601–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jahromi F, Aroca R, Porcel R, Ruiz LJM (2008) Influence of salinity on the in vitro development of Glomus intraradices and on the in vivo physiological and molecular responses of mycorrhizal lettuce plants. Microbial Ecol 55(1):45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jing YD, He ZL, Yang XE (2007) Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 8(3):192–207. doi: 10.1631/jzus.2007.B0192 PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Johansson JF, Paul LR, Finlay RD (2004) Microbial interactions in the mycorrhizosphere and their significance for sustainable agriculture. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 48:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jonsson LM, Nilsson LC, Wardle DA, Zackrisson O (2001) Context dependent effects of ectomycorrhizal species richness on tree seedling productivity. Oikos 93:353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Juniper S, Abbott LK (2006) Soil salinity delays germination and limits growth of hyphae from propagules of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 16:371–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kumar V, Narula N (1999) Solubilization of inorganic phosphates by Azotobacter chroococcum mutants and their effect on seed emergence of wheat. Biol Fertil Soil 28:301–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kumar V, Singh KP (2001) Enriching vermicompost by nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Bioresour Technol 76:173–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kumar V, Aggarwal NK, Singh BP (2000) Performance and persistence of P-solubilizing Azotobacter chroococcum in wheat rhizosphere. Folia Microbiol 45(4):342–346Google Scholar
  36. Kumar V, Behl RK, Narula N (2001) Effect of P-solubilizing Azotobacter chroococcum on yield traits and their survival in the rhizosphere of wheat genotypes under field conditions. Acta Agron Hungarica 49(2):141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kumar V, Solanki AS, Sharma S (2009) Yield and economics of Withania somnifera influenced by dual inoculation of Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas putida. Turk J Biol 33:219–223Google Scholar
  38. Kumar V, Singh AS, Sharma S (2011) AM fungi, A. chroococcum, yield, nutrient uptake and economics of Plantago ovata in Indian arid region. Thai J Agric Sci 44(1):53–60Google Scholar
  39. Kumar V, Bisht S, Teotia P, Sharma S, Solanki AS (2013) Interaction between G. fasciculatum and A. chroococcum for yield, nutrients uptake and cost economy of Lepidium sativum in Indian arid region. Thai J Agric Sci 46(1):21–28Google Scholar
  40. Lerat S, Lapointe L, Gutjahr S, Piché Y, Vierheilig H (2003) Carbon partitioning in a split-root system of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants is fungal and plant species dependent. New Phytol 157:589–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liu JJ, Wang GH, Jin J, Liu JD, Liu XB (2011) Effects of different concentrations of phosphorus on microbial communities in soybean rhizosphere grown in two types of soils. Ann Microbiol 61:525–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mackenzie FT, Mackenzie JA (1995) Our changing earth: an introduction to earth system science and global environmental change. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, p 580Google Scholar
  43. Manchanda G, Garg N (2008) Salinity and its effects on the functional biology of legumes. Acta Physiol Plantarum 30:595–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marques-Ana PG, Rangel-Anto’ Nio OSS, Castro-Paula ML (2009) Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils: phytoremediation as a potentially promising clean-up technology. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 39:622–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mathur J, Bizzoco RW, Ellis DG, Lipson DA, Poole AW, Levine R, Kelley ST (2007) Effects of abiotic factors on the phylogenetic diversity of bacterial communities in acidic thermal springs. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(8):2612–2623PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. McGuinness M, Dowling D (2009) Plant-associated bacterial degradation of toxic organic compounds in soil. Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:2226–2247PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Meudec A, Poupart N, Dussauze J, Deslandes E (2007) Relationship between heavy fuel oil phytotoxicity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in Salicornia fragilis. Sci Total Environ 381:146–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Molina FC, Creus CM, Simontacchi M, Puntarulo S, Lamattina L (2008) Aerobic nitric oxide production by Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and its influence on root architecture in tomato. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 21:1001–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Narula N, Kumar V, Behl RK, Deubal A, Gransee A, Merbach W (2000) Effect of P-solubilizing Azotobacter chroococcum on N, P, K uptake in P-responsive wheat genotypes grown under green house conditions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 163:393–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Parrota JA, Knowles OH, Wunderle JM Jr (1997) Development of floristic diversity in 10-year-old restoration forests on a bauxite mined site in Amazonia. For Ecol Manag 99:21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pati SS, Sahu SK (2004) CO2 evolution and enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, protease and amylase) of fly ash amended soil in the presence and absence of earthworms (Drawida willsi Michaelsen) under laboratory conditions. Geoderma 118:289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Paul D, Nair S (2008) Stress adaptations in a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with increasing salinity in the coastal agricultural soils. J Basic Microbiol 48:378–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peña-Castro JM, Barrera-Figueroa BE, Fernández-Linares L, Ruiz-Medrano R, Xoconostle-Cázares B (2006) Isolation and identification of up-regulated genes in bermuda grass roots (Cynodon dactylon L.) grown under petroleum hydrocarbon stress. Plant Sci 170:724–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pichtel JR, Heys JM (1990) Influence of fly ash on soil microbial activity and population. J Environ Qual 19:596–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pilon SE (2005) Phytoremediation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 56:15–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Prakash A, Bisht S, Singh J, Teotia P, Kela R, Kumar V (2014) Biodegradation potential of Petroleum Hydrocarbons (PHCs) by bacteria and mixed bacterial consortium isolated from contaminated sites. Turk J Eng Environ Res 38:31–40 (Accepted)Google Scholar
  58. Rajkumar M, Sandhya S, Prasad MN, Freitas H (2012) Perspectives of plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation. Biotechnol Adv 30(6):1562–1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ramos JL, Duque E, van Dillewjin P, Daniels C, Krell T, Espinosa-Urgel M, Ramos-González MI, Rodríguez S, Matilla M, Wittich R, Segura A (2010) Removal of hydrocarbons and other related chemicals via the rhizosphere of plants. In: Timmis KN, McGenity TJ, van der Meer JR, de Lorenzo V (eds) Handbook of hydrocarbon and lipid microbiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 2575–2581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rapp A (1986) Introduction to soil degradation processes in drylands. Clim Chang 9:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Raymond AW, Felix EO (2011) Heavy metals in contaminated soils: A review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. ISRN Ecol 20Google Scholar
  62. Read DJ (2002) Towards ecological relevance-progress and pitfalls in the path towards an understanding of mycorrhizal functions in nature. In: van der Heijden MGA, Sanders IR (eds) Mycorrhizal ecology. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–29Google Scholar
  63. Richardson AE (2001) Prospects for using soil microorganisms to improve the acquisition of phosphorus by plants. Aust J Plant Physiol 28:897–906Google Scholar
  64. Rodríguez H, Fraga R (1999) Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion. Biotechnol Adv 17:319–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Romero AMR, Jurado O, Cuartero J (2006) Silicon alleviates the deleterious salt effect on tomato plant growth by improving plant water status. J Plant Physiol 163:847–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Samet JM, Dominici F, Curriero FC, Coursac I, Zeger SL (2000) Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. Cities, 1987–1994. N Engl J Med 343:1742–1749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sandaa RA, Torsvik V, Enger’e (2001) Influence of long-term heavy-metal contamination on microbial communities in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 33:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schubert A, Wyss P, Wiekman A (1992) Occurrence of trehalose in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and in mycorrhizal roots. J Plant Physiol 140:41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schützendübel A, Polle A (2002) Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization. J Exp Bot 53:1351–1365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sharma NK, Sharma S, Kumar V, Poonam A (2006) Species specific Rhizobium-Albizia lebbeck interaction. Ind J For 29(2):175–179Google Scholar
  71. Sinha RK (1997) Towards ecological regeneration, biodiversity conservation and environmental restoration of the Thar Desert ecosystem in India. Desertification Control Bull 30:28–36Google Scholar
  72. Solanki AS, Kumar V, Sharma S (2011) AM fungi, A. chroococcum, yield, nutrient uptake and economics of Chlorophytum borivilianum in Indian arid region. J Agric Tech 7(4):983–991Google Scholar
  73. Tiittanen P, Timonen KL, Ruuskanen J, Mirme A, Pekkanen J (1999) Fine particulate air pollution, resuspended road dust and respiratory health among symptomatic children. Eur Respir J 13:266–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Timmusk S, Wagner EG (1999) The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa induces changes in Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression: a possible connection between biotic and abiotic stress responses. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 12:951–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Toy TJ, Foster GR, Renard KG (2002) Soil erosion, processes, prediction, measurement, and control [E-book]. Wiley, New York, pp 25–43Google Scholar
  76. Tripathi AK, Nagarajan T, Verma SC, Le Rudulier D (2002) Inhibition of biosynthesis and activity of nitrogenase in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 under salinity stress. Curr Microbiol 44(5):363–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Turco RF, Sadowsky MJ (1995) The microflora of bioremediation, In: Skipper HD, Turco RF (eds) Bioremediation: science and application. Soil Science Society of America special publication 43, Madison, pp 87–103Google Scholar
  78. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service, A Soil profile. Retrieved 21 Feb 2014, from United State Department of Agriculture, Web Site: http://soils.usda.gov/education/resources/k_12/lessons/profile/
  79. Upadhyay SK, Maurya SK, Singh DP (2012) Salinity tolerance in free living plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria. Ind J Sci Res 3(2):73–78Google Scholar
  80. Vessey JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 255:571–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Weber FR (1986) Reforestation in Arid lands. VITA Publishing, RiversideGoogle Scholar
  82. Wenzel WW (2009) Rhizosphere processes and management in plant-assisted bioremediation (phytoremediation) of soils. Plant Soil 321:385–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yamaguchi T, Blumwald E (2005) Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: challenges and opportunities. Trends Plant Sci 10:615–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Yang CH, Crowley DE (2000) Rhizosphere microbial community structure in relation to root location and plant iron nutritional status. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:345–351PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vivek Kumar
    • 1
  • Priyanku Teotia
    • 2
  • Sandeep Bisht
    • 3
  • Shivesh Sharma
    • 4
  1. 1.Amity Institute of Microbial TechnologyAMITY UniversityNoidaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology, Division of BiosciencesCollege of Applied Education & Health SciencesMeerutIndia
  3. 3.Department of Basic Science, VCSG College of HorticultureUttarakhand University of Horticulture & ForestryPauriIndia
  4. 4.Department of BiotechnologyMLN National Institute of TechnologyAllahabadIndia

Personalised recommendations