Rhizosphere Bacteria for Crop Production and Improvement of Stress Tolerance: Mechanisms of Action, Applications, and Future Prospects

  • Sajid Mahmood Nadeem
  • Muhammad Naveed
  • Maqshoof Ahmad
  • Zahir Ahmad Zahir


Rhizosphere bacteria associated with plant roots can enhance crop productivity through a number of direct and indirect mechanisms. These beneficial bacteria attracted the scientists around the globe due to their significant contribution to mitigate adverse effects of environmental stresses on plants. These plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the potential to improve crop production under stress conditions solely and/or in combination with other microbes. The use of PGPR as co-inoculants with symbiotic bacteria is a potential biotechnological approach to promote nodulation for improving crop biomass and soil health. Multi-strain bacterial consortia are also proved useful for enhancing plant growth and development particularly in conditions where single inoculation was not so effective. The objectives of present review are to highlight the basic mechanisms used by such bacteria in general and the applied aspects of these bacteria for improving plant stress tolerance and ultimately crop productivity particularly. Certain examples highlighting their significant role for enhancing plant growth under biotic and abiotic stress conditions have been reviewed. The role of PGPR for improving nodulation when used with nitrogen-fixing bacteria has been discussed. The potential of genetically engineered rhizobacteria that possess the required trait necessary under certain environmental conditions has also been evaluated. The areas that need further research and future perspectives of this technology have been discussed in detail.


Salinity Stress Mung Bean Promote Plant Growth Bacterial Consortium Rhizosphere Bacterium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajid Mahmood Nadeem
    • 1
  • Muhammad Naveed
    • 2
  • Maqshoof Ahmad
    • 3
  • Zahir Ahmad Zahir
    • 2
  1. 1.Sub-Campus BurewalaUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Soil and Environmental SciencesUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.University College of Agriculture and Environmental SciencesThe Islamia University of BahawalpurBahawalpurPakistan

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