Advertisement

Phytoextraction of Trace Metals: Principles and Applications

  • Tiziana Centofanti
Chapter

Abstract

Trace elements (TEs) occur at minor concentration (>1 g kg−1) in the organisms, and some are essential nutrients (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl) for animals and plants. As a consequence of human activities such as industrial production, mining, transport, and agriculture, they are released in the environment at high concentrations. TEs can accumulate over time under specific environmental conditions, thus becoming environmental contaminants (Cs, Cr, W, U, Cd, Hg, Tl, Pb, Sn, As, Sb, Se). The environmental risk of TEs is associated with the mobility and bioavailability of the metals more than their total concentration. When they become environmentally mobile and move between media (i.e. soil to water), they can enter the food chain by being taken up by plants and animals. TEs cannot be degraded or broken down and at high concentration are toxic to organisms and tend to bioaccumulate in the environment. For example, selenium (Se) is a naturally occurring element with a wide distribution in almost all parent materials on Earth. At low concentration, Se is an essential nutrient but at high concentration is toxic. In the western side of the San Joaquin Valley in California, soils contain significant quantities of soluble mineral salts and trace elements such as Se and boron (B) that have been leached into shallow groundwater and/or drainage waters because of irrigation practices at Kesterson Reservoir in California. Soluble Se bioaccumulated in the avian food chain and resulted in an environmental disaster with high mortality and reproduction failure of migratory birds (Letey et al. 2002; Ohlendorf et al. 1986).

Keywords

Life Cycle Assessment Cover Crop Serpentine Soil Hyperaccumulator Plant Willow Plantation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abrahamson LP, Robison DJ, Volk TA, White EH, Neuhauser EF, Benjamin WH, Peterson JM (1998) Sustainability and environmental issues associated with willow bioenergy development in New York (U.S.A.). Biomass Bioenergy 15:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson CWN, Brooks RR, Chiarucci A, LaCoste CJ, Leblanc M, Robinson BH, Simcock R, Stewart RB (1999) Phytomining for nickel, thallium and gold. J Geochem Explor 67:407–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker AJM (1981) Accumulators and excluders -strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals. J Plant Nutr 3:643–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bañuelos GS (2006) Phyto-products may be essential for sustainability and implementation of phytoremediation. Environ Pollut 144:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bañuelos G (2009) Phytoremediation of selenium contaminated soil and water produces biofortified products and new agricultural bioproducts. In: Bañuelos G, Lin ZQ (eds) Biofortification and development of new agricultural products. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 57–70Google Scholar
  6. Bañuelos GS, Hanson BD (2010) Use of selenium-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizer in strawberry production. Hortic Sci 45:1567–1572Google Scholar
  7. Bañuelos GS, Stushnoff C, Walse SS, Zuber T, Yang SI, Pickering IJ, Freeman JL (2012) Biofortified, selenium enriched, fruit and cladode from three Opuntia cactus pear cultivars grown on agricultural drainage sediment for use in nutraceutical foods. Food Chem 135:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boyd RS (2007) The defense hypothesis of elemental hyperaccumulation: status, challenges and new directions. Plant Soil 293:153–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Broadhurst CL, Chaney RL, Angle JS, Erbe EF, Maugel TK (2004) Nickel localization and response to increasing Ni soil levels in leaves of the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale. Plant Soil 265:225–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Broadhurst CL, Tappero RV, Maugel TK, Erbe EF, Sparks DL, Chaney RL (2009) Interaction of nickel and manganese in accumulation and localization in leaves of the Ni hyperaccumulators Alyssum murale and Alyssum corsicum. Plant Soil 314:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brooks RR (1987) Serpentine and its vegetation. A multidisciplinary approach. Dioscorides Press, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  12. Brooks RR, Lee J, Reeves RD, Jaffré T (1977) Detection of nickeliferous rocks by analysis of herbarium specimens of indicator plants. J Geochem Explor 7:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Centofanti T, Siebecker MG, Chaney RL, Davis AP, Sparks DL (2012) Hyperaccumulation of nickel by Alyssum corsicum is related to solubility of Ni mineral species. Plant Soil 359:71–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chaney RL (1983) Plant uptake of inorganic waste constituents. In: Parr JF, Marsh JMK (eds) Land treatment of hazardous wastes. Noyes Data Corp, Park RidgeGoogle Scholar
  15. Chaney RL, Angle JS, Broadhurst CL, Peters CA, Tappero RV, Sparks DL (2007) Improved understanding of hyperaccumulation yields commercial phytoextraction and phytomining technologies. J Environ Qual 36:1429–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaney RL, Centofanti T, Broadhurst CL (2010) Phytoremediation of soil trace elements. In: Hooda PS (ed) Trace elements in soils. Wiley, Chichester, p 352Google Scholar
  17. Cherian S, Oliveira MM (2005) Transgenic plants in phytoremediation: recent advances and new possibilities. Environ Sci Technol 39:9377–9390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clemens S, Palmgren MG, Krämer U (2002) A long way ahead: understanding and engineering plant metal accumulation. Trends Plant Sci 7:309–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Conesa HM, Evangelou MWH, Robinson BH, Schulin R (2012) A critical view of current state of phytotechnologies to remediate soils: still a promising tool. Sci World J. doi: 10.1100/2012/173829, Article ID 173829Google Scholar
  20. Dhankher OP, Pilon-Smits EAH, Meagher RB, Doty S (2012) Biotechnological approaches for phytoremediation. In: Altman A, Hasegawa PM (eds) Plant biotechnology and agriculture prospects for the 21st century. Academic, MA, pp 309–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dickinson NM, Baker AJM, Doronila A, Laidlaw S, Reeves RD (2009) Phytoremediation of inorganics: realism and synergies. Int J Phytoremediat 11:97–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. GACGC (1994) World in transition: the threat to soils. German Advisory Council on Global Change, Annual report, Economica Verlag GmbH, Bonn, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  23. Gomes HI (2012) Phytoremediation for bioenergy: challenges and opportunities. Environ Technol Rev 1:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Granel T, Robinson B, Mills T, Clothier B, Green S, Fung L (2002) Cadmium accumulation by willow clones used for soil conservation, stock fodder, and phytoremediation. Aust J Soil Res 40:1331–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Harris AT, Naidoo K, Nokes J, Walker T, Orton F (2009) Indicative assessment of the feasibility of Ni and Au phytomining in Australia. J Clean Prod 17:194–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heller MC, Keoleian GA, Volk TA (2003) Life cycle assessment of a willow bioenergy cropping system. Biomass Bioenergy 25:147–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hu Y, Nan Z, Su J, Wang N (2013) Heavy metal accumulation by poplar in calcareous soil with various degrees of multi-metal contamination: implications for phytoextraction and phytostabilization. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:7194–7203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keller C, Hammer D (2004) Metal availability and soil toxicity after repeated croppings of Thlaspi caerulescens in metal contaminated soils. Environ Pollut 131:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koh LP, Ghazoul J (2008) Biofuels, biodiversity, and people: understanding the conflicts and finding opportunities. Biol Conserv 141:2450–2460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Krämer U (2010) Metal hyperaccumulation in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:517–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leblanc M, Petit D, Deram A, Robinson BH, Brooks RR (1999) The phytomining and environmental significance of hyperaccumulation of thallium by Iberis intermedia from southern France. Econ Geol 94:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Letey J, Williams CF, Alemi M (2002) Salinity, drainage and selenium problems in the Western San Joaquin Valley of California. Irrig Drain Syst 16:253–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lewandowski I, Schmidt U, Londo M, Faaij A (2006) The economic value of the phytoremediation function – assessed by the example of cadmium remediation by willow (Salix ssp). Agric Syst 89:68–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li Y-M, Chaney R, Brewer E, Roseberg R, Angle JS, Baker A, Reeves R, Nelkin J (2003a) Development of a technology for commercial phytoextraction of nickel: economic and technical considerations. Plant Soil 249:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Li Y-M, Chaney RL, Brewer EP, Angle JS, Nelkin J (2003b) Phytoextraction of nickel and cobalt by hyperaccumulator Alyssum species grown on nickel-contaminated soils. Environ Sci Technol 37:1463–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maxted AP, Black CR, West HM, Crout NMJ, McGrath SP, Young SD (2007) Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc by Salix from soil historically amended with sewage sludge. Plant Soil 290:157–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meers E, Vandecasteele B, Ruttens A, Vangronsveld J, Tack FMG (2007) Potential of five willow species (Salix spp.) for phytoextraction of heavy metals. Environ Exp Bot 60:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Milner MJ, Kochian LV (2008) Investigating heavy-metal hyperaccumulation using Thlaspi caerulescens as a model system. Ann Bot 102:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mirck J, Isebrands JG, Verwijst T, Ledin S (2005) Development of short-rotation willow coppice systems for environmental purposes in Sweden. Biomass Bioenergy 28:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morvan X, Saby NPA, Arrouays D, Le Bas C, Jones RJA, Verheijen FGA, Bellamy PH, Stephens M, Kibblewhite MG (2008) Soil monitoring in Europe: a review of existing systems and requirements for harmonisation. Sci Total Environ 391:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nicks LJ, Chambers MF (1998) A pioneering study of the potential of phytomining for nickel. In: Brooks RR (ed) Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals. CABI, Wallingford, p 380Google Scholar
  42. Ohlendorf HM, Hoffman DJ, Saiki MK, Aldrich TW (1986) Embryonic mortality and abnormalities of aquatic birds: apparent impacts of selenium from irrigation drainwater. Sci Total Environ 52:49–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pilon-smits E (2005) Phytoremediation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 56:15–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pulford ID, Watson C (2003) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees—a review. Environ Int 29:529–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Robinson BH, Chiarucci A, Brooks RR, Petit D, Kirkman JH, Gregg PEH, De Dominicis V (1997a) The nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum bertolonii as a potential agent for phytoremediation and phytomining of nickel. J Geochem Explor 59:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Robinson BH, Brooks RR, Howes AW, Kirkman JH, Gregg PEH (1997b) The potential of the high-biomass nickel hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii for phytoremediation and phytomining. J Geochem Explor 60:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Robinson B, Green S, Mills T, Clothier B, van der Velde M, Laplane R, Fung L, Deurer M, Hurst S, Thayalakumaran T, van den Dijssel C (2003a) Phytoremediation: using plants as biopumps to improve degraded environments. Aust J Soil Res 41:599–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Robinson B, Fernández JE, Madejón P, Marañón T, Murillo JM, Green S, Clothier B (2003b) Phytoextraction: an assessment of biogeochemical and economic viability. Plant Soil 249:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Robinson BH, Green SR, Chancerel B, Mills TM, Clothier BE (2007) Poplar for the phytomanagement of boron contaminated sites. Environ Pollut 150:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Robinson BH, Bañuelos G, Conesa HM, Evangelou MWH, Schulin R (2009) The phytomanagement of trace elements in soil. Crit Rev Plant Sci 28:240–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rowe RL, Street NR, Taylor G (2009) Identifying potential environmental impacts of large-scale deployment of dedicated bioenergy crops in the UK. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13:271–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rugh CL, Gragson GM, Meagher RB, Merkle SA (1998) Toxic mercury reduction and remediation using transgenic plants with a modified bacterial gene. Hortic Sci 33:618–621Google Scholar
  53. Sheoran V, Sheoran AS, Poonia P (2009) Phytomining: a review. Miner Eng 22:1007–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Šyc M, Pohořelý M, Kameníková P, Habart J, Svoboda K, Punčochář M (2012) Willow trees from heavy metals phytoextraction as energy crops. Biomass Bioenergy 37:106–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tappero R, Peltier E, Gräfe M, Heidel K, Ginder-Vogel M, Livi KJT, Rivers ML, Marcus ML, Chaney RL, Sparks DL (2007) Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale relies on a different metal storage mechanism for cobalt than for nickel. New Phytol 175:641–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. van der Ent A, Baker AJM, Reeves RD, Joseph Pollard A, Schat H (2013) Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: facts and fiction. Plant Soil 362:319–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vervaeke P, Luyssaert S, Mertens J, Meers E, Tack FMG, Lust N (2003) Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial. Environ Pollut 126:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Volk TA, Abrahamson LP, Nowak CA, Smart LB, Tharakan PJ, White EH (2006) The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation. Biomass Bioenergy 30:715–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhao FJ, Lombi E, Breedon T, McGrath SP (2000) Zinc hyperaccumulation and cellular distribution in Arabidopsis halleri. Plant Cell Environ 23:507–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant ScienceCalifornia State University-FresnoFresnoUSA

Personalised recommendations