Selenium: A Potent Natural Antioxidant

  • Mohinder Bansal
  • Naveen Kaushal


Selenium element description is included in this collection, as this essential element acts as a potent antioxidant through the selenoproteins and also its deficiency is linked in various pathological conditions. However, at high level, it acts as toxic but is not of interest in the present write-up. Here we have described the characteristics of various selenoproteins known till today and discussed there possible functions. In the end, epidemiological consideration of the selenium is discussed as per literature.


Glutathione Peroxidase Selenium Supplementation Selenium Status Keshan Disease SECIS Element 


  1. Akbaraly TN, Arnaud J, Rayman MP, Hininger-Favier I, Roussel AM, Berr C, Fontbonne A (2010) Plasma selenium and risk of dysglycemia in an elderly French population: results from the prospective epidemiology of vascular aging study. Nutr Metab 7:21–27Google Scholar
  2. Al-Taie OH, Seufert J, Mork H, Treis H, Mentrup B, Thalheimer A, Starostik P, Abel J, Scheurien M, Kohrle J, Jakob F (2002) A complex DNA-repeat structure within the Selenoprotein P promoter contains a functionally relevant polymorphism and is genetically unstable under conditions of mismatch repair deficiency. Eur J Hum Genet 10:499–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amer ES, Holmgren A (2000) Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Eur J Biochem 267:6102–6109Google Scholar
  4. Anestal K, Arner ES (2003) Rapid induction of cell death by selenium-compromised thioredoxin reductase 1 but not by the fully active enzyme containing selenocysteine. J Biol Chem 278:15966–15972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Archmann FL, Fomenko DE, Soragni A, Gladyshev VN, Dikiy A (2007) Solution structure of selenoprotein W and NMR analysis of its interaction with 14-3-3-proteins. J Biol Chem 282:37036–37044Google Scholar
  6. Arner ES, Holmgren A (2006) Thioredoxin system in cancer. Semin Cancer Biol 16:420–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnold SM, Fessler LI, Fessler JH, Kaufman RJ (2000) Two homologues encoding human UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyl transferase differ in mRNA expression and enzymatic activity. Biochemistry 39:2149–2163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Banning A, Deubel S, Kluth D, Zhou Z, Brigelius-Flohe R (2005) The GI-GPx gene in a target for Nrf2. Mol Cell Biol 25:4914–4923PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Baum MK, Campa A, Miguez-Burbano MJ, Burbano X, ShorPosner G (2001) Role of selenium in HIV/AIDS (ch 20). In: Hatfield DL (ed) Selenium: its molecular biology and role in human health. Kluwer Academic, Norwell, pp 247–255Google Scholar
  10. Behne D, Hilmert H, Scheid S, Gessner H, Elger W (1988) Evidence for specific selenium target tissues and new biologically important selenoproteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 966:12–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Birringer M, Pilawa S, Flohe L (2002) Trends in selenium biochemistry. Nat Prod Rep 19:693–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bock A (2001) Selenium metabolism in bacteria. In: Hatfield DL (ed) Selenium: its molecular biology and role in human health. Kluwer Academic, Norwell, pp 7–22, lGoogle Scholar
  13. Bopp BA, Sonders RC, Kesterson JW (1982) Metabolic fate of selected selenium compounds in laboratory animals and man. Drug Metab Rev 13:271–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brigelius-Floh R (1999) Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases. Free Radic Biol Med 27:951–965Google Scholar
  15. Brown KM, Arthur JR (2001) Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review. Public Health Nutr 4:593–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Buettner C, Harney JW, Larsen PR (1998) The 3′-untranslated region of human type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase mRNA contains a functional selenocysteine insertion sequence element. J Biol Chem 273:33374–33378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Burk RF, Hill KE (1999) Orphan selenoproteins. Bioessays 21:231–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Burk RF, Hill KE (2005) Selenoprotein P an extracellular protein with unique physical characteristics and a role in selenium homeostasis. Annu Rev Nutr 25:215–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Butler JA, Whanger PD, Kaneps AJ, Patton NM (1990) Metabolism of selenite and selenomethionine in Rhesus monkey. J Nutr 120:751–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlson BA, Martin-Romero FJ, Kumaraswamy E, Moustafa ME, Zhi H, Hatfield DL, Lee BJ (2001) Mammalian selenocysteine tRNA p. In: Hatfield DL (ed) Selenium: its molecular biology and role in human health. Kluwer Academic, Norwell, pp 23–32Google Scholar
  21. Castellano S, Morozova N, Morey M, Berry MJ, Serras F, Corominas M, Guigo R (2001) In silico identification of novel selenoproteins in the drosophila melanogaster genome. EMBO Rep 2:697–702PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Chu FF, Esworthy RS, Chu PG, Longmate JA, Huycke MM, Wilezynski S et al (2004) Bacteria-induced intestinal cancer in mice with disrupted Gpx1 and Gpx2 genes. Cancer Res 64:962–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Combs GF Jr, Combs SB (1984) The nutrition biochemistry of selenium. Annu Rev Nutr 4:257–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Combs GR, Liu L (2001) Selenium as a cancer preventive. In: Hatfield DL (ed) Selenium: its molecular biology and role in human health. Kluwer Academic, Norwell, pp 205–217, ch 17Google Scholar
  25. Conrad M, Jakupoglu C, Moreno SG, Lippl S, Banjac A, Schneider M, Beck H, Hatzopoulos AK, Just U, Sinoutatz F, Schneider M, Beck H, Hatzo-poulos AK, Just U, Sinowatz F, Schmahl W, Chien KR, Wurst W, Bomkamm GW, Brielmeier M (2004) Essential role for mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase in hematopoiesis, heart development and heart function. Mol Cell Biol 24:9414–9423PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Copeland PE, Stepanik VA, Driscoll DM (2001) Insight into mammalian selenocysteine insertion: domain structure and ribosome binding properties of Sec insertion sequence binding protein 2. Mol Cell Biol 21:1491–1498PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Coppinger RJ, Diamond AM (2001) Selenium deficiency and human disease (ch 18). In: Hatfield DL (ed) Selenium: its molecular biology and role in human health. Kluwer Academic, Norwell, pp 219–233Google Scholar
  28. Curran JE, Jowett JB, Elliott KS, Gao Y, Gluschenko K, Wang J, Abel Azim DM, Cai G, Mahaney MC, Comuzzie AG, Dyer TD, Walder KR, Zimmer P, MacCluer JW, Collier GR, Kissebah AH, Blangero J (2005) Nat Genet 37:1234–1241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Danesi F, Malaguti M, Nunzio MD, Maranesi M, Biagi PL, Bordoni A (2006) Counteraction of adriamycin-induced oxidative damage in rat heart by selenium dietary supplementation. J Agric Food Chem 54:1203–1208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Diskin CJ, Tomasso CL, Alper JC, Glaser ML, Fliegel SE (1979) Long term selenium exposure. Arch Intern Med 139:824–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Escobar-Morreale HF, Obregon MJ, Escobar del Rey F, Morreale de Escobar G (1999) Tissue-specific patterns of changes in 3,5,3′-triodo-L-thyronine concentrations in thyroidectomized rats infused with increasing doses of the hormone. Which are the regulatory mechanisms? Biochimie 81:453–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fagegaltier D, Hubert N, Yamada K, Mizutani T, Carbon P, Krol A (2000) Characterization of mSelB, a novel mammalian elongation factor for selenoprotein translation. EMBO J 19:4796–4805PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferguson AD, Labunskyy VM, Fomenko DE, Arac D, Chelliah Y, Amezcua CA, Rizo J, Gladyshev VN, Deisenhofer J (2006) NMR-structures of the selenoproteins Sep15 and SelM reveal redox activity of a new thioredoxin-like family. J Biol Chem 281:3536–3543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferreiro A, Quijano-Roy S, Pichereau C, Moghadaszadeh B, Goemans N, Bonnemann C, Jungbluth H, Straub V, Villanova M, Leroy JP, Romero NB, Martin JJ, Muntoni F, Voit T, Estournet B, Richard P, Fardeau M, Gulcheney P (2002) Mutations of the selenoprotein N gene, which is implicated in rigid spine muscular dystrophy, cause the classical phenotype of multiminicore disease: reassessing the nosology of early-onset myopathies. Am J Hum Genet 71:739–749PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Field JK, Youngson JH (2002) The Liverpool Lung Project: a molecular epidemiological study of early lung cancer detection. Eur Respir J 20:464–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Finley J, Penland J (1998) Adequacy or deprivation of dietary selenium in healthy men: clinical and psychological findings. J Trace Elem Exp Med 11:11–27Google Scholar
  37. Floh L, Foresta C, Garolla A, Maiorino M, Roveri A, Ursini F (2002) Metamorphosis of the selenoprotein PHGPx during spermatogenesis. Ann NY Acad Sci 973:287–288Google Scholar
  38. Foresta C, Floh L, Garolla A, Roveri A, Ursini F, Maiorino M (2002) Male fertility is linked to the selenoprotein phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Biol Reprod 67:967–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fu Y, Cheng WH, Porres JM, Ross DA, Lei XG (1999) Knockout of cellular glutathione peroxidase gene mice susceptible to diquat-induced oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 27:605–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fu LH, Wang XF, Eyal Y, She YM, Donald LJ, Standing KG, Ben-Hayyim G (2002) A selenoprotein in the plant kingdom. Mass spectrometry confirms that an opal codon (UGA) encodes selenocysteine in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii glutathione peroxidase. J Biol Chem 277:25983–25991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ganther HE (1979) Metabolism of hydrogen selenide and methylated selenides. Adv Nutr Res 2:107–128Google Scholar
  42. Gladyshev VN (2006) Selenoproteins and selenoproteomes (Chapter 9). In: Hatfield DL, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN (eds) Selenium: its molecular biology and role in human health, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 99–114Google Scholar
  43. Glass RS, Singh WP, Jung W, Veres Z, Scholz TD, Stadtman TC (1993) Monoselenophosphate: synthesis, characterization and identity with prokaryotic biological selenium donor, compound SePX. Biochemistry 32:12555–12559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gromer S, Eubel JK, Lee BL, Jacob J (2005) Human selenoproteins at a glance. Cell Mol Life Sci 62:2414–2437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Guimaracs MJ, Petrson D, Vicarari A, Cocks BG, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Ferrick DA, Kastelein RA, Bazan JR, Zlotnik A (1996) Identification of a novel selD homolog from eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea: is there an autoregulatory mechanism in selenocysteine metabolism? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 67:1200–1206Google Scholar
  46. Guo F, Monsefi N, Moritz A, Beiras-Femandez A (2012) Selenium and cardiovascular surgery: an overview. Curr Drug Saf 7:321–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hammond PB, Beliles RP (1980) Metals. In: Doull J, Klaassen CD, Amdur MO (eds) Casarett and Doull’s toxicology, the basic science of poisons, 2nd edn. Macmillan, New York, pp 409–467Google Scholar
  48. Hardy G, Hardy I, Manzanares W (2012) Selenium supplementation in the critically ill. Nutr Clin Pract 27:21–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hatfield DL, Portugal FH (1970) Seryl-tRNA in mammalian tissues. Chromatographic differences in brain and liver and a specific response to the codon, UGA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 67:1200–1206PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, Hoffman S, Burke A, Norkus EP, Morris J, Comstock GW (2000) Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:2018–2023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hill KE, zhou J, McMahan WJ, Motley AK, Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Burk RF (2003) Deletion of selenoprotein P alters distribution of selenium in the mouse. J Biol Chem 278:13640–13646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hu YJ, Diamond AM (2003) Role of glutathione peroxidase 1 in breast cancer loss of heterozygosity and allelic differences in the response to selenium. Cancer Res 63:3347–3351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hu YJ, Korotkov KV, Mehta R, Hatfield DL, Rotimi CN, Luke A, Prewitt TE, Cooper RS, Stock W, Vokes EE, Dolan ME, Glalyshav VN, Diamond AM (2001) Distribution and functional consequences of nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3′-untranslated region of the human Sep15 gene. Cancer Res 61:2307–2310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Ip C, Hayes C, Budnick RM, Ganther HE (1991) Chemical form of selenium, critical metabolites and cancer prevention. Cancer Res 51:595–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jakupoglu C, Pizemeck GK, Schneider M, Morlno SG, Mayr N, Hatzopoulos AK, deAnqelis MH, Wurat W, Bomkamm GW, Brielmeir M, Conrad M (2005) Cytoplasmic thioredoxin reductase is essential for embryogenesis but dispensable for cardiac development. Mol Cell Biol 25:1980–1988PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Jenkins KJ, Hidiroglou M (1972) Comparative metabolism of 75Se-selenite, 75Se-selenate and 75Se-selenomethionine in bovine erythrocytes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 50:927–935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jeong D, Kim TS, Chung YW, Lee BJ, Kim IY (2002) Selenoprotein W is a glutathione-dependent antioxidant in vivo. FEBS Lett 517:225–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Jiang S, Robberecht H, Vanden Berge D (1983) Elimination of selenium compounds by mice through formation of different volatile selenides. Experientia 39:293–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kelly GS (2000) Peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones: a review. Altern Med Rev 5:306–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Keskes-Ammar L, Feki-Chakroun N, Rebai T, Sahnoun Z, Ghozzi H, Hammami S, Zghal K, Fki H, Damak J, Bahloul A (2003) Sperm oxidative stress and the effect of an oral vitamin E and selenium supplement on semen quality in infertile men. Arch Androl 49:83–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kim HY, Gladyshey VN (2004) Characterization of mouse endoplasmic reticulum methionine-R-sulphoxide reductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 320:1277–1283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Klein EA (2004) Selenium: epidemiology and basic science. J Urol 17:S50–S53Google Scholar
  63. Klein EA, Lippman SM, Thompson IM, Goodman PJ, Albanes D, Taylor PR, Coltman C (2003) The selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial. World J Urol 21:21–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Korotkov KV, Kumaraswamy E, Zhou Y, Hatfield DL, Gladyshev VN (2001) Association between the 15-kDa selenoprotein and UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells. J Biol Chem 276:15330–15336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Korotkov KV, Novoselov SV, Hattield DL, Gladyshev VN (2002) Mammalian selenoprotein in which selenocysteine (Sec) incorporation is supported by a new form of Sec insertion sequence element. Mol Cell Biol 22:1402–1411PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Kote-Jarai Z, Durocher F, Edwards SM, Hamoudi R, Jackson RA, Ardern-Jones A, Murkin A, Dearnaley DP, Kirby R, Houlston R, Easton DF, Eeles R, CRC/BPG UK Familial Prostate Cancer Collaborators (2002) Association between the GCG polymorphism of the selenium dependent GPX1 gene and the risk of young onset prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 5:189–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kryukov GV, Kryukov VM, Gladyshev VN (1999) New mammalian selenocysteine-containing proteins identified with an algorithm that searches for selenocysteine insertion sequence element. J Biol Chem 274:33888–33897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kryukov GV, Kumar RA, Koe A, Gladyshey YN (2002) Selenoprotein R is a Zinc-containing stereo-specific methionine sulfoxide reductase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:4245–4250PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Kryukov GV, Castellano S, Novoselov SV, Lobanov AV, Zehtab O, Guigo R, Gladyshev VN (2003) Characterization of mammalian selenoproteomes. Science 300:1439–1443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kumar S, Bjornstedt M, Holmgren A (1992) Selenite is a substrate for calf thymus thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin and elicits a large non-stoichiometric oxidation of NADPH in the presence of oxygen. Eur J Biochem 207:435–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kumaraswamy E, Malykh A, Korotkov KV, Kozyavkin S, Hu Y, Kwon SY, Moustafa ME, Carlson BA, Berry MJ, Lee BJ, Hatffield DL, Diamond AM, Gladyshey YN (2000) Structure-expression relationships of the 15-kDa selenoprotein gene. Possible role of the protein in cancer etiology. J Biol Chem 275:35540–35547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kumaraswamy E, Carlson BA, Morgan F, Miyoshi K, Robinson GW, Su D et al (2003) Selective removal of the selenocysteine tRNA [Ser]Sec gene (Trsp) in mouse mammary epithelium. Mol Cell Biol 23:1477–1488PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Lee BJ, Worland PJ, Davis JN, Stadtman TC, Hartfield DL (1989) Identification of a selenocysteyl-tRNASer in mammalian cells which recognizes the nonsense codon, UGA. J Biol Chem 264:9724–9727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lei XG, Cheng WH (2005) New roles for an old selenoenzyme: evidence from glutathione peroxidase-1 null and overexpressing mice. J Nutr 135:2295–2298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lescure A, Gautheret D, Carbon P, Krol A (1999) Novel selenoproteins identified in silico and in vivo by using a conserved RNA structural motif. J Biol Chem 274:38147–38154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Li J, Zuo L, Shen T, Xu CM, Zhang ZN (2003) Induction of apoptosis by sodium selenite in human acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cells: involvement of oxidative stress and mitochondria. J Trace Elem Med Biol 17:19–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Li H, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucei EL, Morris JS, Willett WC, Gaziano JM, Ma J (2004) A perspective study of plasma selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 96:696–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Low SC, Berry MJ (1996) Knowing when not to stop selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotes. Trends Biochem Sci 21:203–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Ma S, Hill KE, Burk RF, Caprioli RM (2005) Mass spectrometric determination of selenenylsulfide linkages in rat selenoprotein P. J Mass Spectrom 40:400–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. McKenzie RC, Arthur JR, Beckett GJ (2002) Selenium and the regulation of cell signaling growth and survival: molecular and mechanistic aspects. Antioxid Redox Signal 4:339–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Meuillet E, Stratton S, Cherukuri DP, Goulet AC, Kagey J, Porterfield B, Nelson M (2004) Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with selenium: an update on current clinical trials and preclinical findings. J Cell Biochem 91:443–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Miranda-Vizuete A, Damdimopoulos AE, Spyrou G (2000) The mitochondrial thioredoxin system. Antioxid Redox Signal 2:801–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Mistry HD, Broughton PF, Redman CW, Poston L (2012) Selenium in reproductive health. Am J Obstet Gynecol 206:21–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Moghadaszadeh B, Beggs AH (2006) Selenoproteins and their impact on human health through diverse physiological pathways. Physiology (Bethesda) 21:307–315Google Scholar
  85. Moghadaszadeh B, Petit N, Jaillard C, Brockington M, Quijano Roy S, Merlini C, Romero N, Estournet B, Desquerre I, Cheiqne D, Muntoni F, Topaloglu H, Guicheney P (2001) Mutations in SEPN1 cause congenital muscular dystrophy with spinal rigidity and respective respiratory syndrome. Nat Genet 29:17–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Moreira-Rosa R, De Oliveira RB, Saffi J, Braga AL, Rooesler R, Dal-Pizzol F, Fonseca-Moreira JC, Brendel M, Pegas-Henriques JA (2005) Prooxidant action of diphenyl diselenide in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to ROS-generating conditions. Life Sci 77:2398–2411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Moscow JA, Schmidt L, Ingram DT, Gnarra J, Johnson B, Cowan KH (1994) Loss of heterozygosity of the human cytosolic glutathione peroxidase I gene in lung cancer. Carcinogenesis 15:2769–2773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Nakamuro K, Sayato Y, Ose Y (1977) Studies on selenium-related compounds VI. Biosynthesis of dimethyl selenide in rat liver after oral administration of sodium selenate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 39:521–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Neve J (1996) Selenium as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. J Cardiovasc Risk 3:42–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ng L, Goodyear RJ, Woods CA, Schhneider MJ, Diamond E, Richardson GP, Kelley MW, Germain DL, Galton VA, Forrest D (2004) Hearing loss and retarded cochlear development in mice lacking type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3474–3479PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Nicastro HL, Dunn BK (2013) Selenium and prostate cancer prevention: insights from the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT). Nutrients 5:1122–1148PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Nomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN, Jr Combs GF (2000) Serum selenium and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9:883–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ogunro PS, Oqungbamigbe TO, Elemie PO, Egbewale BE, Adewole TA (2006) Plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in HIV-1/AIDS infected patients: a correlation with the disease progression. Niger Postgrad Med J 13:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Papp LV, Lu J, Holmgren A, Khanna KK (2007) From selenium to selenoproteins: synthesis, identity and their role in human health. Antioxid Redox Signal 9:775–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Petit N, Leseure A, Rederstoriff M, Krol A, Moghadaszadeh B, Wewer UM, Guicheney P (2003) Selenoprotein N: an endoplasmic reticulum glycoprotein with an early developmental expression pattern. Hum Mol Genet 12:1045–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ratnasinghe D, Tangrea JA, Andersen MR, Barrett MJ, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Albanes D (2000) Glutathione peroxidase codon 198 polymorphism variant increases lung cancer risk. Cancer Res 60:6381–6383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ray AL, Semba RD, Walston J, Ferrucci L, Cappola AR, Ricks MO, Xue Q, Fried LP (2006) Low serum selenium and total carotenoids predict mortality among older women living in the community: the women’s health and aging studies. J Nutr 136:172–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Rayman MP (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356:233–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Reszka E (2012) Selenoproteins in bladder cancer. Clin Chim Acta 413:847–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG (1973) Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179:588–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Salvatore D, Low SC, Berry M, Maia AL, Hamey JW, Croteau W, StGermain DL, Larsen PR (1995) Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase cloning, in vitro expression and functional analysis of the cloning: in vitro expression and functional analysis of the placental selenoenzyme. J Clin Invest 96:2421–2430PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Sandalova T, zhong L, Lindqvist Y, Holmgren A, Schneider G (2001) Three-dimensional structure of a mammalian thioredoxin reductase: implications for mechanism and evaluation of a selenocysteine-dependent enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9533–9538PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Sarto C, Frutiger S, Cappellano F, Sanchez JC, Doro G, Catanzaro F, Hughes GJ, Hochstrasser DF, Mocarelli P (1999) Modified expression of plasma glutathione peroxidase and manganese superoxide dismutase in human renal cell carcinoma. Electrophoresis 20:3458–3466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Sattler W, Maiorino M, Stocker R (1994) Reduction of HDL and LDL associated cholesterylester and phospholipids hydroperoxides by phospholipid glutathione peroxidase and ebselen. Arch Biochem Biophys 309:214–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Schrauzer GN (1992) Selenium: mechanistic aspects of anticarcinogenic action. Biol Trace Elem Res 33:51–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Schwarz K, Foltz CM (1957) Selenium as an integral part of factor3 against dietary necrotic liver degeneration. J Am Chem Soc 79:3292–3293Google Scholar
  107. Schweizer U, streckfuss F, Pelt P, Carlson BA, Hatfield DL, Kohrle J, Schomburg L (2005) Hepatically derived selenoprotein P is a key factor for kidney but not for brain selenium supply. Biochem J 386:221–226PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Seeher S, Mahdi Y, Schweizer U (2012) Post-transcriptional control of selenoprotein biosynthesis. Curr Protein Pept Sci 13:337–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Seo YR, Kelley MR, Smith ML (2002) Selenomethionine regulation of p53 by a ref1-dependent redox mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14548–14553PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Shen H, Yang C, Liu J, Ong C (2000) Dual role of glutathione in selenite-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. Free Radic Biol Med 28:1115–1124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Soderberg A, Sahaf B, Rosen A (2000) Thioredoxin reductase, a redox-active selenoprotein is secreted by normal and neoplastic cells: presence in human plasma. Cancer Res 60:2281–2289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Spallholz JE, Boylan LM, Larsen HS (1990) Advances in understanding selenium’s role in the immune system. Ann NY Acad Sci 587:123–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Squires JE, Berry MJ (2008) Eukaryotic selenoprotein synthesis: mechanistic insight incorporating new factors and new functions for old factors. IUBMB Life 60:232–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Stehbens WE (2004) Oxidative stress in viral hepatitis and AIDS. Exp Mol Pathol 77:121–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Su D, Novoselov SV, Sun QA, Moustafa ME, Zhou Y, Oko R, Hatfield DL, Gladyshev VN (2005) Mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin-glutathione reductase: roles in disulfide bond formation and sperm maturation. J Biol Chem 280:26491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sun QA, Gladyshev VN (2002) Redox regulation of cell signaling by thioredoxin reductases. Methods Enzymol 347:451–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Sun QA, Kirnarsky L, Sherman S, Gladyshev VN (2001) Selenoprotein oxidoreductase with specificity for thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:3673–3678PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. Tapiero H, Townsend DM, Tew KD (2003) The antioxidant role of selenium and seleno-compounds. Biomed Pharmacother 57:134–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Tham DM, Whitin JC, Kim KK, Zhu SX, Cohen HJ (1998) Expression of extracellular glutathione peroxidase in human and mouse gastrointestinal tract. Am J Physiol 275:G1463–G1471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Tong YJ, Teng WP, Jin Y, Li YS, Guan HX, Wang WB, Gao TS, Teng XC, Yang F, Shi XG, Chen W, Man N, Li Z, Guo XJ (2003) An epidemiological study on the relationship between selenium and thyroid function in areas with different iodine intake. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 83:2036–2039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Urisini F, Heim S, Kiess M, Maiorino M, Roveri A, Wissing J, Flobe I (1999) Dual function of the selenoprotein in PHGPx during sperm maturation. Science 285:1393–1396Google Scholar
  122. Van den Brandt PA, Zeegers MP, Bode P, Goldbohm RA (2003) Toenail selenium levels and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12:866–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Vendeland SC, Beilstein MA, Chen CL, Jensen ON, Barofsky E, Whanger PD (1993) Purification and properties of selenoprotein W from rat muscle. J Biol Chem 268:17103–17107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Vendeland SC, Beitstein MA, Yeh JY, Ream W, Whanger PD (1995) Rat skeletal muscle selenoprotein W: cDNA clone and RNA maturation by dietary selenium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:8749–8753PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Villette S, Kyle JA, Brown KM, Pickard K, Milne JS, Nicol F, Arthur JR, Hesketh JE (2002) A novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3′ untranslated region of human glutathione peroxidase 4 influences lipoxygenase metabolism. Blood Cells Mol Dis 29:174–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Vinceti M, Bonvicini F, Bergomi M, Malagoli C (2010) Possible involvement of overexposure to environmental selenium in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a short review. Ann Ist Super Sanita 46:279–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Walder K, Kantham L, McMilan JS, Trevaskis J, Kerr L, DeSilva A, Stunderland T, Godde N, Gao Y, Bishara N, Windmill K, Tenne-Brown J, Augert G, Zimmet PZ, Collier GR (2002) Tanis: a link between type 2 diabetes and inflammation? Diabetes 51:1859–1866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Weeks BS, Hanna MS, Cooperstein D (2012) Dietary selenium and selenoprotein function. Med Sci Monit 18:127–132Google Scholar
  129. Weissman SH, Cuddihy RG, Medinsky MA (1983) Absorption, distribution and retention of inhaled selenious acid and selenium metal aerosols in beagle dogs. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 67:331–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Whanger PD (2002) Selenoprotein W. Methods Enzymol 347:179–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Whitin JC, Tham DM, Bhamre S, Omt DB, Scanding JD, Tune BM, Salvatiessa O, Avissar N, Cohn HJ (1998) Plasma glutathione peroxidase and its relationship to renal proximal tubule function. Mol Genet Metab 65:238–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Winger R, Bocher M, Floh L, Kolimus H, Brigelius-Floh R (1999) mRNA stability and selenocysteine insertion sequence efficiency rank gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase high in the hierarchy of selenoproteins. Eur J Biochem 259:149–157Google Scholar
  133. Ye Y, Shibata Y, Yun C, Ron D, Rpoport TA (2004) A membrane protein complex mediates retro-translation from the ER lumen into the cytosol. Nature 429:841–847PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohinder Bansal
    • 1
  • Naveen Kaushal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiophysicsPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations