Advertisement

Cell Signaling and Gene Regulation by Oxidative Stress

  • Mohinder Bansal
  • Naveen Kaushal
Chapter

Abstract

Cell signaling is a part of the complex system of communication that governs the basic cellular activities and actions. In this chapter general cell signaling elements, redox signaling and oxidative stress-mediated modulation of the transcription factors will be presented. With the help of specific examples of signaling pathways in metabolic and pathological conditions related to oxidative stress will facilitate understanding of various system pathologies.

Keywords

Cysteine Residue Nuclear Export Signal Antioxidant Response Element Extracellular Signal Molecule Reactive Cysteine Residue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abate C, Patel L, Rauscher FJ III, Curran T (1990) Redox regulation of fos and jun DNA-binding activity in vitro. Science 249:1157–1161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aikawa R, Komuro I, Yamazaki T, Zou Y, Kudoh S, Tanaka M, Shiojima I, Hisoi Y, Yazaki Y (1997) Oxidative stress activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases through Src and Ras in cultured cardiac monocytes of neonatal rats. J Clin Invest 100:1813–1821PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Ando K, Hirao S, Kabe Y, Ogura Y, Sato I, Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Handa H (2008) A new APE1/Ref-1-dependent pathway leading to reduction of NF-kB and AP-1, and activation of their DNA-binding activity. Nucleic Acid Res 36:4327–4336PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Angel P, Imagawa M, Chiu R, Stein B, Imbra RJ, Rahmadorf HJ, Jonat C, Herrlich P, Karin M (1987) Phorbol ester-inducible genes contain a common cis element recognized by a TPA-modulated trans-acting factor. Cell 49:729–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arai KI, Lee F, Miyajima A, Miyatake S, Arai N, Yokota T (1990) Cytokines: coordination of immune and inflammatory responses. Annu Rev Biochem 59:783–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arbabi S, Maier RV (2002) Mitogen-activated protein kinases C. Crit Care Med 30:S74–S79Google Scholar
  7. Bae YS, Kang SW, Seo MS, Baines IC, Tekle E, Cook PB, Rhee SG (1997) Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced generation of hydrogen peroxide. Role in EGF receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. J Biol Chem 272:217–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bae YS, Sung JY, Kim OS, Hur KC, Kazlauskas, Rhee SG (2000) Platelet derived growth factor-induced H2O2 production requires the activation phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J Biol Chem 275:10527–10531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barford D (2001) The mechanism of protein kinase regulation by protein phosphatases. Biochem Soc Trans 29:385–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beiging L, Chen M, Whisler RL (1996) Sublethal levels of oxidative stress stimulate transcriptional activation of c-Jun and suppress IL-2 promoter activation in Jurkat T cells. J Immunol 157:160–169Google Scholar
  11. Brawn MK, Chiou WJ, Leach KL (1995) Oxidant-induced activation of protein kinase C in UCIIMG cells. Free Radic Res 22:23–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Breyer RM, Bagdassarian CK, Mayers SA, Breyer MD (2001) Prostanoid receptors: subtypes and signaling. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 41:661–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bulua AC, Simon A, Maddipati R, Pelletier M, Park H, Kim KY, Sack MN, Kaster DL, Siegel RM (2011) Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species promote production of proinflammatory cytokines and are elevated in TNFR1-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). J Exp Med 208:519–533PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Buschmann T, Potapova OA, Bar-Shira VN, Ivanov SY, Fuchs S, Henderson S, Frad VA, Minamoto T, Alarcon-Vargas D, Pincus MR, Gaarde WA, Holbrook NJ, Shiloh Y, Ronai Z (2001) Jun NH2-terminal kinase phosphorylation of p53 on Thr-81 is important for p53 stabilization and transcriptional activities in response to stress. Mol Cell Biol 21:2743–2754PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Cairns RA, Harris IS, Mak TW (2011) Regulation of cancer cell metabolism. Nat Rev Cancer 11:85–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cantrell DA (2001) Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways. J Cell Sci 114:1439–1445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carlson RM (1990) Assessment of the propensity for covalent binding of electrophiles to biological substrates. Environ. Health Perspect 87:227–232Google Scholar
  18. Cash P, Pan Y, Simon MC (2007) Reactive oxygen species and cellular oxygen sensing. Free Radic Biol Med 43:1219–1225PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Chan JY, Kwong M (2000) Impaired expression of glutathione synthetic enzyme genes in mice with targeted deletion of the Nrf2 basic-leucine zipper protein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1517:19–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen Q, Olashaw N, Wu J (1995) Participation of ROS in the lysophosphatidic acid-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase activation pathway. J Biol Chem 270:28499–28502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen CC, Young JL, Monzon RI, Chen N, Todorovic V, Lau LF (2007) Cytotoxicity of TNF alpha is regulated by integrin-mediated matrix signaling. EMBO J 26:1257–1267PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen L, Dai AG, Hu RC (2008) Roles of NRF2 regulating gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in lung of rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Zhongguo Ying Yong sheng li xue za zhi =zhongguo shenglixue zahi. Clin J Appl Physiol 24:339–342Google Scholar
  23. Chinenov Y, Kerppola TK (2001) Close encounters of many kinds: fos-jun interactions that mediate transcription regulatory specificity. Oncogene 20:2438–2452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Choi HS, Moore DD (1993) Induction of c-fos and c-jun gene expression by phenolic antioxidants. Mol Endocrinol 7:1596–1602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Choi TG, Lee J, Ha J, Kim SS (2011) Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 is an intracellular inducer of P38 MAPK-mediated myogenic signaling in cardiac myoblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 1813:1412–1421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Collart FR, Horio M, Huberman E (1995) Heterogeneity in c-jun gene expression in normal and malignant cells exposed to either ionizing radiation or hydrogen peroxide. Radiat Res 142:188–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dalton PT, Shertzer HG, Puga A (1999) Regulation of gene expression by reactive oxygen. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 39:67–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Davies SS, Amarnath V, Roberts LJ II (2004) Isoketals: highly reactive γ-ketoaldehydes formed from the H2-isoprostane pathway. Chem Phys Lipids 128:85–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Debburman SK, Ptasienski J, Benovie JL, Hosey MM (1996) G protein coupled receptor kinase GRK2 is a phospholipid dependent enzyme that can be conditionally activated by G protein beta/gamma subunits. J Biol Chem 271:22552–22562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Demple B, Herman T, Chen DS (1991) Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: definition of a family of DNA repair enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:1145–11454Google Scholar
  31. Deng T, Karin M (1994) c-Fos transcriptional activity stimulated by H-ras-activated protein kinase distinct from JNK and ERK. Nature 371:171–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dinkova-Kostova AT, Holtzclaw WD, Cole RN, Itoh K, Wakabayashi N, Katoh Y, Yamamoto M, Talalay P (2002) Direct evidence that sulfhydryl groups of keap1 are the sensors regulating modulation of phase 2 enzymes that protect against carcinogen and oxidants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:11908–11913PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Droge W (2002) Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Physiol Rev 82:47–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Droge W, Schulze-Osthoff K, Mihm S, Galter D, Schenk H, Eck HP, Roth S, Gmunder H (1994) Function of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in immunology and immunopathology. FASEB J 8:1131–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dumont JE, Pecasse F, Maenhant C (2001) Crosstalk and specificity in signalling. Are we crosstalking ourselves into general confusion? Cell Signal 13:457–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fantl WJ, Jonson DE, Williams LT (1993) Signalling by receptor tyrosine kinases. Annu Rev Biochem 62:453–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fialkow L, Chan CK, Rotin D, Grinstein S, Downey GP (1994) Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in neutrophils. Role of oxidants. J Biol Chem 269:31234–31242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Flohe L, Brigelius-Floe R, Saliou C, Traber MG, Packer L (1997) Redox regulation of NFkB activation. Free Radic Biol Med 22:1115–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Forman HJ, Torres M, Fukuto J (2002) Redox signaling. Mol Cell Biochem 234–235:49–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fujino G, Noguchi T, Matsuzawa A, Yamauchi S, Saitoh M, Takeda K, Ichijo H (2007) Thioredoxin and TRAF family protein regulate ROS-dependent activation of ASK1 through reciprocal modulation of the N-terminal homophilic interaction of ASK1. Mol Cell Biol 27:8152–8163PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Furukawa M, Xiong Y (2005) BTB protein keap1 targets antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 for ubiquitination by the cullin 3-Roc1 ligase. Mol Cell Biol 25:162–171PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Galy B, Créancier L, Zanibellato C, Prats AC, Prats H (2001) Tumour suppressor p53 inhibits human fibroblast growth factor 2 expression by a post-transcriptional mechanism. Oncogene 20:1669–1677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gao N, Ding M, Zheng JZ, Zhang Z, Leonard SS, Liu KJ, Shi X, Jiang BH (2002) Vanadate induced expression of hypoxia –inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor through phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway and reactive oxygen species. J Biol Chem 277:31963–31971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ghosh S, May M, Koop E (1998) NFkB and Rel proteins: evolutionarily conserved mediators of immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 16:225–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Go YM, Patel RP, Maland MC, Park H, Beckman JS, Darley-Usmar VM, Jo H (1999) Evidence for peroxynitrite as a signaling molecule in flow-dependent activation of c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Am J Physiol 277(4 Pt 2):H1647–1653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Goetzl EJ, An S, Smith WL (1995) Specificity of expression and effects of eicosanoid mediators in normal physiology and human diseases. FASEB J 9:1051–1058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gopalakrishna R, Jaken S (2000) Protein kinase C signaling and oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 28:1349–1361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Grunwald EW, Richards MP (2006) Mechanisms of heme protein-mediated lipid oxidation using hemoglobin and myoglobin variants in raw and heated washed muscle. J Agric Food Chem 54:8271–8280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Guyton KZ, Liu Y, Gonospe M, Xu Q, Holbnook NJ (1996) Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by H2O2. Role in cell survival following oxidant injury. J Biol Chem 271:4138–4142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Haddad JJ (2003) Science review redox and oxygen-sensitive transcription factors in the regulation of oxidant-mediated lung injury role for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha. Crit Care 7:47–54PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Hayes JD, Chanas SA, Henderson CJ, McMahon M, Sun C, Moffat GJ, Wolf CR, Yamamoto M (2000) The Nrf2 transcription factor contributes both to the basal expression of glutathione S-transferases in mouse liver and to their induction by the chemopreventive synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole and ethoxyquin. Biochem Soc Trans 28:33–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Higdon A, Diers AR, OH JY, Landar A, Darley-Usmar VM (2012) Cell signaling by reactive lipid species: new concepts and molecular mechanisms. Biochem J 442:453–464PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Hirota K, Matsui M, Iwata S, Nishyama A, Mori K, Yodol J (1997) AP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by a direct association between thioredoxin and Ref-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:3633–3638PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Hofseth LJ, Hussain SP, Harris CC (2004) P53: 25 years after its discovery. Trends Pharmacol Sci 25:177–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hong F, Freeman ML, Liebler DC (2005) Identification of sensor cysteines in human keap 1 modified by the cancer chemopreventive agent sulforaphane. Chem Res Toxicol 18:1917–1926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Huang HC, Liu SY, Liang Y, Liu Y, Li JZ, Wang HY (2005) Transforming growth factor-beta 1 stimulates matrix metalloproteinase – a production through ERK activation pathway and upregulation of Ets-1 protein. Zhonghua YiXueZa Zhi 85:328–331Google Scholar
  57. Hunter T, Karin M (1992) The regulation of transcription by phosphorylation. Cell 70:375–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Iles KE, Forman HJ (2002) macrophage signaling and respiratory burst. Immunol Res 26:95–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Inoguchi T, Sonta T, Tsubouchi H, Etoh T, Kakimoto M, Sonoda N, Sata N, Sekiguchi N, Kotayashi K, Sumimote H, Utsumi H, Nawata H (2003) Protein kinase-c dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vascular tissues of diabetes; role of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase. J Am Sci Nepherol 14:S227–S232Google Scholar
  60. Irani K, Xia Y, Zweier JL, Sollott SJ, Der CJ, Fearon ER, Sundaresan M, Finkel T, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ (1997) Mutagenic signaling mediated by oxidants in Ras-transformed fibroblasts. Science 275:1649–1652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Itoh K, Wakabayashi N, Katoh Y, Ishii T, Igarashi K, Engel JD, Yamamoto M (1999) Keap1 represses nuclear activation of antioxidant responsive element to Nrf2 through binding to the amino-terminal Nrf2 domain. Genes Dev 13:76–86PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Iuvone T, D’Acquisto F, VanOsselaer N, Rosa MD, Carnuccio R, Herman AG (1998) Evidence that inducible nitric oxide synthase is involved in LPS-induced plasma leakage in rat skin through the activation of nuclear factor induced leakage in rat skin through the activation of nuclear factor-induced plasma leakage in rat skin through the activation of nuclear factor kappaB. Br J Pharmacol 123:1325–1330PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Jarmi T, Agarwal A (2009) Heme oxygenase and renal disease. Curr Hypertens Rep 11:56–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kamata H, Hirata H (1999) Redox regulation of cellular signaling. Cell Signal 11:1–14 (Review)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kamata H, Honda S, Maeda S, Chang L, Hirata H, Karin M (2005) ROS promote TNF-α-induce death and sustained death and sustained JNK activation by inhibiting MAP kinase phosphatases. Cell 120:649–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Karin M (1995) The regulation of AP-1 activity by mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Biol Chem 270:16483–16486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kass GE, Duddy SK, Orrenius S (1989) Activation of hepatocyte protein kinase c by redox-cycling quinones. Biochem J 260:499–507PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Keyse SM, Emslie EA (1992) Oxidative stress and heat shock induce a human gene encoding a potent tyrosine phosphatase. Nature 359:644–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kim JH, Chu SC, Gramlich JL, Pride YB, Babendeier E, Chaudhan SR, Podar K, Griffin JD, Sattler M (2005) Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway by BCR-ABL contribute to increased production of reactive oxygen species. Blood 105:1717–1723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Klatt P, Molina EP, DeLacoba MG, Padlilla CA, Martinez-Galesteo E, Barcena JA, Lamas S (1999) Redox regulation of c-jun DNA binding by reversible S-glutathiolation. FASEB J 13:1481–1490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Klaung JE, Kamendulis, Hocevar BA (2010) Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in carcinogenesis. Toxicol Pathol 38:96–109, ReviewGoogle Scholar
  72. Komatsu D, Kato M, Nakayama J, Miyagawa S, Kamata T (2008) NADPH oxidase 1 plays a critical mediating role in oncogenic Ras-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Oncogene 27:4724–4732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Konishi H, Tanaka M, Takemura Y, Martsuzaki H, Ono Y, Kikkawa U, Nishizuka Y (1997) Activation of protein kinase C by tyrosine phosphorylation in response to H2O2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:11233–11237PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Koshio O, Akanuma Y, Kasuga M (1988) Hydrogen peroxide stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its tyrosine kinase activity in intact cells. Biochem J 250:95–101PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Krautwald S, Buscher D, Dent P, Ruthenberg K, Baccasini M (1995) Suppression of growth factor-mediated MAP kinase activation by v-raf in macrophages: a putative role for the MKP-1 phosphatase. Oncogene 10:1187–1192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kretz-Remy C, Mehlen P, Mirault ME, Arrigo AP (1996) Inhibition of Ikappa B-alpha phosphorylation and degradation and subsequent NFkappaB activation by glutathione peroxidase overexpression. J Cell Biol 133:1083–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kuster GM, Siwik DA, Pimentel DR, Colucci WS (2006) Role of reversible, thioredoxin –sensitive oxidative protein modifications in cardiac monocytes. Antioxid Redox Signal 8:2153–2159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kwon J, Lee SR, Yang KS, Ahn Y, Kim YJ, Stadman ER, Rhee SG (2004) Reversible oxidation and inactivation of the tumor suppressor PTEN in cells stimulated with peptide growth factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:16419–16424PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Lee K, Esselman WJ (2002) Inhibition of PTP by H2O2 regulates the activation of distinct MAPK pathways. Free Radic Biol Med 33:1121–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lee W, Mitchell P, Tjian R (1987) Purified transcription factor AP-1 interacts with TPA-inducible enhancer elements. Cell 49:741–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lee JK, Edderkaoui M, Truong P, Ohno I, Jang KT, Berti A, Pandoi SJ, Gukovskaya AS (2007) NADPH oxidase promotes pancreatic cancer cell survival via inhibiting JAK2 dephosphorylation by tyrosine phosphatases. Gastroenterology 133:1637–1648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lee KB, Lee JS, Park JW, Huh TL, Lee YM (2008) Low energy proton beam induces tumor cell apoptosis through reactive oxygen species and activation of caspases. Exp Mol Med 40:118–129PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Lefkowitz RJ (1993) G-protein-coupled receptor kinases. Cell 74:409–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Leonarduzzi G, Sottero B, Poli G (2010) Targeting tissue oxidative damage by means of cell signaling modulators: the antioxidant concept revisited. Pharmacol Ther 128:336–374, ReviewPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Leslie NR, Downes CP (2002) PTEN: the down side of PI3-kinase signalling. Cell Signal 14:285–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Levonen AL, Lander A, Ramachandran A, Ceaser EK, Dickinson DA, Zanoni G, Morrow JD, Darley-Usmar VM (2004) Cellular mechanisms of redox cell signaling: role of cysteine modification in controlling antioxidant defences in response to electrophilic lipid oxidation products. Biochem J 378:373–382PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Li W, Yu SW, Kong AN (2006) Nrf2 possesses a redox –sensitive nuclear exporting signal in the Neh5 transactivation domain. J Biol Chem 281:27251–27263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lin A, Frost J, Deng T, al-Alawi N, Smeal T, Kikkawa U, Hunter T, Brenner D, Karin M (1992) Casein kinase II is negative regulator of c-jun DNA binding and AP-1 activity. Cell 70:777–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Liu LZ, Hu XW, Xia C, He J, Zhou Q, Shi X, Fang J, Jiang BH (2006) Reactive oxygen species regulate epidermal growth factor-induced vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression through activation of AKT and P70S6K1 in human ovarian cancer cells. Free Radic Biol Med 41:1521–1533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Liu B, Chen Y, St Clair DK (2008) ROS and p53: a versatile partnership. Free Radic Biol Med 44:1529–1535PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Lo YYC, Cruz TF (1995) Involvement of reactive oxygen species in cytokine and growth factor induction of c-fos expression in chondrocytes. J Biol Chem 270:11727–11730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lu D, Chen J, Hai T (2007) The regulation of ATF3 gene expression by mitogen-activated protein kinases. Biochem J 401:559–567PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Maher JM, Dieter MZ, Aleksunes LM, Slitt AL, Guo G, Tanaks Y, Scheffer GL, Chan JY, Klaassen CD (2007) Oxidative and electrophilic stress induces multidrug resistance-associated protein transporters via the nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 transcriptional pathway. Hematology 46:1597–1610Google Scholar
  94. Marano F, Hussain S, Rodrigues-Lima F, Baeza-Squiban A, Boland S (2011) Nanoparticles: molecular targets and cell signalling. Arch Toxicol 85:733–741, ReviewPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Marshall CJ (1994) MAP kinase kinase kinase, MAP kinase kinase and MAP kinase. Curr Opin Genet Dev 4:82–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Meng TC, Fukada T, Tonks NK (2002) Reversible oxidation and inactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases in vivo. Mol Cell 9:387–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Méplan C, Richard MJ, Hainaut P (2000) Redox signalling and transition metals in the control of the p53 pathway. Biochem Pharmacol 59:25–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Mitomo K, Nakayama K, Fujimoto K, Sun X, Seki S, Yamamoto K (1994) Two different cellular redox systems regulate the DNA-binding activity of the p50 subunit of NFkB in vitro. Gene 145:197–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Morel Y, Barouki R (1999) Repression of gene expression by oxidative stress. Biochem J 342:481–496PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Morita K, Saitoh M, Tobiume K, Matsuura H, Enomoto S, Nishitoh H, Ichijo H (2001) Negative feedback regulation of ASK1 by protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) in response to oxidative stress. EMBO J 20:6028–6036PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Muller JM, Cahill MA, Rupec RA, Baeuele PA, Nordheim A (1997) Antioxidants as well as oxidants activate c-fos via Ras-dependent activation of extra-cellular-signal –regulated kinase 2 and Eik-1. Eur J Biochem 244:45–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Myrset AH, Bostad A, Jamin N, Lirsac PN, Toma F, Gabrielsen OS (1993) DNA and redox state induced conformational changes in the DNA-binding domain of the Myb oncoprotein. EMBO J 12:4625–4633PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Nagai H, Noguchi T, Takeda K, Ichijo H (2007) Pathophysiological roles of ASK1-MAP kinase signaling pathways. J Biochem Mol Biol 40:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Newton AC (1997) Regulation of protein kinase C. Curr Opin Cell Biol 9:161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Nguyen T, Huang HC, Pickett CB (2000) Transcription regulation of the antioxidant response element activation by Nrf2 and repression by Mafk. J Biol Chem 275:15466–15473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Nguyen T, Nioi P, Pickett CB (2009) The Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway and its activation by oxidative stress. J Biol Chem 284:13291–13295PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Ni W, Zhan Y, He H, Maynard E, Balschi JA, Oettgen (2007) Ets-1 is a critical transcriptional regulator of reactive oxygen species and p47(phox) gene expression in response to angiotensin II. Circ Res 101:985–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Niki E, Yoshida Y, Saito Y, Noguchi N (2005) Lipid peroxidation: mechanisms, inhibition, and biological effects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 338:668–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Nishanth RP, Jyotsna RG, Schlaqes JJ, Hussain SM, Reddanna P (2011) Inflammatory responses of Raw264.7 macrophages upon exposure to nanoparticles: role of ROS-NF-kB signaling pathways. Nano Toxicol 5:502–516Google Scholar
  110. Nishi T, Shimizu N, Hiramoto M, Sato I, Yamaguchi Y, Haesegawa M, Aizawa S, Tanaka H, Kataoka K, Watanabe H, Hand H (2002) Spatial redox regulation of a critical cysteine residue of NFkB in vivo. J Biol Chem 277:44548–44556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Niwa K, Inami O, Yamamori T, Hamsu T, Karino T, Kuwabara M (2002) Roles of protein kinase c delta in the accumulation of p53 and the induction of apoptosis in H2O2-treated bovine endothelial cells. Free Radic Res 36:1147–1153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ohshiro Y, Ma RC, Yasuda Y, Hiroka-Yamamoto J, Clermont AC, Isshiki K, Yagi K, Ankawa E, Kern TS, King GL (2006) Reduction of diabetes-induced oxidative stress, fibrotic cytokine expression and renal dysfunction in protein kinase cbeta-null mice. Diabetes 55:3112–3120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Osbern WO, Kensler TW (2008) Nrf2 signaling an adaptive response pathway for protection against environmental toxic insults. Mutat Res 659:31–39Google Scholar
  114. Pande V, Ramos MJ (2005) NF-kB in human disease: current inhibitors and prospects for de novo structure base design of inhibiter. Curr Med Chem 12:357–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Parson JT, Parson SJ (1997) Src family protein tyrosine kinases: co-operating with growth factor and adhesion signaling pathways. Curr Opin Cell Biol 9:187–192Google Scholar
  116. Pavlovic D, Dordevic V, Kocic G (2002) A “cross-talk” between oxidative stress and redox cell signaling. Facta Univ Ser Med Biol 9:131–137 (Review)Google Scholar
  117. Perez-Sala D, Cerunuda-Morollon E, Pineda-Molina E, Canada FJ (2002) Contribution of covalent protein modification to the anti-inflammatory effects of cyclopentenone prostaglandins. Ann N Y Acad Sci 973:533–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Peshenko IV, Shichi H (2001) Oxidation of active center cysteine of bovine 1-cys peroxiredoxin to the cysteine sulfenic acid form by peroxide and peroxynitrite. Free Radic Biol Med 31:292–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Poli G, Leonardduzzy G, Biasi F, Chiarpotto E (2004) Oxidative stress and cell signaling. Curr Med Chem 11:1163–1182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Putney JJW, McKay RR (1999) Capacitative calcium entry channels. Bioessays 21:38–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Ranawat P, Bansal MP (2009) Apoptosis induced by modulation in selenium status involves p38 MAPK and ROS: implications in spermatogenesis. Mol Cell Biochem 330:83–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Rao A, Luo C, Hogan PG (1997) Transcription factors of the NFAT family: regulation and function. Annu Rev Immunol 15:707–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ray LB, Sturgill TW (1987) Rapid stimulation by insulin of a serine/threonine kinase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes that phosphorylates microtubule-associated protein2 in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:1502–1506PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Ray PD, Huang BW, Tsuji Y (2012) Reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and redox regulation in cellular signaling. Cell Signal 24:981–990PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Robson CN, Hickson ID (1991) Isolation of cDNA clones encoding a human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease that corrects DNA repair and mutagenesis defects in E. Coli Xth (exonuclease III) mutants. Nucleic Acid Res 19:5519–5523PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Rodrigues MS, Reddy MM, Sattler M (2008) Cell cycle regulation by oncogenic tyrosine kinases in myeloid neoplasias from molecular redox mechanisms to health implications. Antioxid Redox Signal 10:1813–1848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Saitoh M, Nishitoh H, Fujii M, Takeda K, Toblume K, Sawada Y, Kawabata M, Miyazono K, Khijo (1998) Mammalian thyroxin is a direct inhibitor of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK). EMBO J 17:2596–2606PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Sakamoto K, Iwasaki K, Suglyama H, Tsuji Y (2009) Role of the tumor suppressor PTEN in antioxidant response element-mediated transcription and associated histone modifications. Mol Biol Cell 20:1606–1617PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Sakurai A, Hara S, Okano N, Kondo Y, Inoue J, Imura N (1999) Regulatory role of metallothionein in NFkB activation. FEBS Lett 455:55–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sato H, Sato M, Kanai H, Uchiyama T, Iso T, Ohyama Y, Sakamoto H, Tamura J, Naqai R, Kurabayashi M (2005) Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and c-Src play a critical role in hypoxic response in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Res 67:714–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Schopler FJ, Cipollina C, Freeman BA (2011) Formation and signaling actions of electrophilic lipids. Chem Rev 111:5997–6021Google Scholar
  132. Schulze-Osthoff K, Los M, Baeuerle PA (1995) Redox signaling by transcription factors NFkB and AP1 in lymphocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 50:735–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Semenza GL (2000) HIF-1: mediator of physiological and pathological responses to hypoxia. J Appl Physiol 88:1474–1480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Seo JH, Ahn Y, Lee SR, Yeol Yeo C, Chung Hur K (2005) The major target of the endogenously generated ROS in response to insulin stimulation is phosphatase and tensin homolog and not phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3 kinase) in the PI-3 kinase/Akt pathway. Mol Biol Cell 16:348–357PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. Shalini S, Bansal MP (2005) Role of selenium in regulation of spermatogenesis: involvement of activator protein 1. Biofactors 23:151–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Shalini S, Bansal MP (2007) Alterations in selenium influences reproductive potential of male mice by modulation of transcription factor NFkB. BioMetals 20:49–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Shukla A, Stern M, Lounsbury KM, Flanders T, Mossaman BT (2003) Asbestos induced apoptosis is protein kinase C delta-dependent. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 29:198–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Solis WA, Dalton TP, Dieter MZ, Freshwater S, Harrer JM, He L, Shertzer HG, Nebert DW (2002) Glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit: mouse Gclm gene structure and regulation by agents that cause oxidative stress. Biochem Pharmacol 63:1739–1754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Stamatakis K, Perez-Sala D (2006) Prostanoids with cyclopentenone structure as tools for the characterization of electrophilic lipid-protein interactions. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1091:548–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Storz P (2005) Reactive oxygen species in tumor suppression. Front Biosci 10:1881–1896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Strader CR, Fong TM, Tota MR, Underwood D (1994) structure and function of G-protein-coupled receptors. Annu Rev Biochem 63:101–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sun H, Tonks NK (1994) The coordinated action of protein tyrosine phosphatases and kinases in cell signaling. Trends Biochem Sci 19:480–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Tell G, Quadrifoglio F, Tinbelli C, Kelley MR (2009) The many functions of APE-1/Ref-1: not only a DNA repair enzyme. Antioxid Redox Signal 11:601–620PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Thannickal VJ, Fanburg BL (2000) Reactive oxygen species in cell signaling. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 279:L 1005–L 1028, ReviewGoogle Scholar
  145. Tobiume K, Matsuzawa A, Takahashi T, Nishitoh H, Morita K, Takeda K, Minowa O, Miyazono K, Noda T, Khijo H (2001) ASK1 is required for sustained activation of JNK/P38 MAP kinase and apoptosis. EMBO Rep 2:222–228PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Tobiume K, Saitoh M, Ichijo H (2002) Activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 by the stress-induced activating phosphorylation of pre-formed oligomer. J Cell Physiol 191:95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Traenckner EMB, Pahl HL, Schmidt KN, Wilk S, Baeuele PA (1995) Phosphorylation of human OkB on serine 32 and 26 controls IkB-α proteolysis and NFkB activation in response to diverse stimuli. EMBO J 14:2876–2883PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Ueno M, Masutani H, Arai RJ, Yamauchi A, Hirota K, Sakai T, Inamoto T, Yamuoko Y, Yodol J, Nikaido T (1999) Thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of p53-mediated p21 activation. J Biol Chem 274:35809–35815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J (2007) Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39:44–84, ReviewPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Venugopal R, Jaiswal AK (1996) Nrf1 and Nrf2 positively and c-fos and Fra1 negatively regulate the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of NSD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase1 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:14960–14965PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Villeneuve NF, Lau A, Zhang DD (2010) Regulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 antioxidant response by the ubiquitin proteasome system: an insight into cullin-ring ubiquitin ligases. Antioxid Redox Signal 13:1699–1712PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Wang J, Dore S (2007) Heme oxygenase-1 exacerbates early brain injury after intracerebral haemorrhage. Brain 130:1643–1652PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Wei SJ, Botero A, Hirota K, Bradbury CM, Markovina S, Laszlo A, Spitz DR, Goswami PC, Yodoi J, Gius D (2000) Thioredoxin nuclear translocation and interaction with redox factor-1 activates the activator protein-1 transcription factor in response to ionizing radiation. Cancer Res 60:6688–6695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Wilson LA, Gemin A, Espiritu R, Singh G (2005) Ets-1 is transcriptionally up-regulated by H2O2 via an antioxidant response element. FASEB J 19:2085–2087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Wu WS, Trai RK, Chang CH, Wang S, Wu J, Chang YX (2006) Reactive oxygen species mediated sustained activation of protein kinase C alpha and extracellular signal-regulated kinase for migration of human hepatoma cell Hepg2. Mol Cancer Res 4:747–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Xanthioudakis S, Miao G, Wang F, Pan YC, Curren T (1992) Redox activation of Fos-Jun DNA binding activity is mediated by a DNA repair enzyme. EMBO J 11:3323–3335Google Scholar
  157. Xanthoudakis S, Curren T (1992) Identification and characterization of Ref-1, a nuclear protein that facilitates AP-1 DNA-binding activity. EMBO J 11:633–665Google Scholar
  158. Xiong F, Xiao D, Zhang L (2012) Norepinephrine causes epigenetic repression of PKCε gene in rodent hearts by activating NOX1-dependent ROS production. FASEB J 26:2753–2763PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Yamamoto Y, Gaynor RB (2001) Therapeutic potential of inhibition of NFkB pathway in the treatment of inflammation and cancer. J Clin Invest 107:135–142PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Yamamoto T, Matsuzaki H, Konishi H, Ono Y, Kikkawa U (2000) H2O2 –induced tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase cdelta by a mechanism independent of inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase in CHO and COS-7 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 273:960–966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Yoshizumi M, Abe J, Haendeler J, Huang Q, Berk BC (2000) Src and Cas mediate JNK activation but not ERK ½ and p38 kinases by reactive oxygen species. J Biol Chem 275:11706–11712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Yueh MF, Tukey RH (2007) Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway regulates human UGT1A1 expression in vitro and in transgenic UGT1 mice. J Biol Chem 282:8749–8758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Zhan Y, Brown C, Maynard E, Anshelevich A, Ni W, Ho IC, Oettgen P (2005) Ets-1 is a critical regulator of Ang II-mediated vascular inflammation and remodeling. J Clin Invest 115:2508–2516PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. Zhang DD, Hannink M (2003) Distinct cysteine residues in keap 1 are required for keap 1-dependent and for stabilization of Nrf2 by chemopreventive agents and oxidative stress. Mol Cell Biol 23:8137–8151PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Zhang ZY, Zhou B, Xie L (2002) Modulation of protein kinase signaling by protein phosphatases and inhibitors. Pharmacol Ther 93:307–317PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohinder Bansal
    • 1
  • Naveen Kaushal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiophysicsPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations