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Cowpea

  • François Abaye Badiane
  • Made Diouf
  • Diaga Diouf
Chapter

Abstract

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important warm-season legume grown mostly by the poor farmers in the semiarid tropics for human consumption and animal feeding. The crop was originated from Africa where it was domesticated from its wild progenitor V. unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var spontanea. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNP) analysis suggested different domestication events from East to West Africa or single domestication process in the first region followed by transportation in the second. On the basis of molecular analyses, the genome organization of the crop was intensively studied, leading to the identification of two gene pools and gene flow between cultivated and wild forms or crop to crop can be a threat to the breeding programs. A wide range of biotic (virus, bacteria, fungi, insects, nematodes, and plants) and abiotic (like low phosphorus availability, soil acidity or salinity, drought, and high temperature at night) factors are limiting cowpea production in different parts of the world. To overcome these constraints, diverse programs were implemented for base broadening using interspecific hybridization between cowpea and other members of its genus with limited success because of pre-zygotic and post-zygotic barriers. These failures led the investigators to implement protocols to introduce foreign genes into cowpea. Currently, several genes of interest such as herbicide imazapyr, α-amylase inhibitor 1 (against bruchids), and Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac (against Maruca) have been introduced successfully into commercially important cultivars, and these genes are transmitted in Mendelian fashion. In addition, significant genomic resources and a consensus genetic map where agronomic, growth habit, disease, pest resistance, and other trait loci have been placed and are usable in breeding programs.

Keywords

Interspecific Hybridization Cowpea Genotype Cowpea Variety Cowpea Accession Cowpea Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • François Abaye Badiane
    • 1
    • 2
  • Made Diouf
    • 1
  • Diaga Diouf
    • 1
  1. 1.Département de Biologie Végétale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Laboratoire de Biotechnologies VégétalesUniversité Cheikh Anta DiopDakarSénégal
  2. 2.Faculté des Sciences et Technologies de l’Education et de la Formation (FASTEF)DakarSénégal

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