Imaging Modalities for Lacrimal Disorders
Disorders of the lacrimal system are not uncommon. The spectrum of disease varies from congenital absence or aberrant anlage to acquired stenosis and obstructions of adult onset. Primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction with associated infection is relatively common, whereas certain other disorders such as primary sac and duct tumors are very rare. Radiologic evaluation of the lacrimal system has evolved over the past decades to include a variety of studies ranging from plain dacryocystography (Fig. 10.1) to digital subtraction dacryocystography (DCG), nuclear medicine isotope studies (dacryoscintigraphy (DSG)), lacrimal ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT), combined CT-DCG, and magnetic resonance imaging DCG (MR-DCG) . Technological advances and enhanced imaging processing has allowed development of techniques that provide three-dimensional visualization of the nasolacrimal duct system.
KeywordsNasolacrimal Duct Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Lacrimal System Lacrimal Drainage System Coronal Reformat Image
- 1.Mahesh L. Imaging in lacrimal surgery. In: Isloor S, editor. Lacrimal drainage surgery. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 2014. p. 17–22.Google Scholar
- 3.Kousoubris PD. Radiological evaluation of lacrimal and orbital disease. In: Woog JJ, editor. Endoscopic lacrimal and orbital surgery. 1st ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Hienemann; 2004. p. 79–104.Google Scholar
- 6.Lefebvre DR, Freitag SR. Update on imaging of the lacrimal drainage system. Surv Ophthalmol. 2012;27:175–86.Google Scholar
- 17.Hurwitz JJ, Edward Kassel EE, Jaffer N. Computed tomography and combined CT-dacryocystography (CT-DCG). In: Hurwitz JJ, editor. The lacrimal system. New York: Raven Press; 1996. p. 83–5.Google Scholar