Pollination Ecology

  • K. R. Shivanna
  • Rajesh Tandon


Pollination is one of the most critical events in sexual reproduction of flowering plants. Pollination is the basis of gene flow and genetic recombination. Studies on pollination ecology were prevalent even before Darwin; they became intense after Darwin formulated the concept of co-evolution between flowers and pollinators. The number of publications on pollination perhaps exceeds those in any other area of reproductive ecology. Pollination is simply the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma. Pollination ecology is the study of pollen transfer through understanding of interactions between plants and pollinators in relation to the prevailing habitat. Except in some apomictic species which do not depend on fusion of the second male gamete with polar nuclei for endosperm development (pseudogamy), effective pollination is a prerequisite for successful seed development. A comprehensive understanding of pollination ecology of a species needs a thorough familiarity with the phenology, floral morphology and sexuality of the species.


Corolla Tube Pollen Load Pollination Limitation Floral Visitor Wind Pollination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. R. Shivanna
    • 1
  • Rajesh Tandon
    • 2
  1. 1.Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE)BengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

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