• K. R. Shivanna
  • Rajesh Tandon


Phenology refers to the responses of living organisms to seasonal and climatic changes. In flowering plants various reproductive events, termed phenoevents, such as the onset of flowering and fruiting and seed dispersal, follow a seasonal pattern. There is great variation amongst the species in timing of these events, their duration, intensity and frequency.


Seed Dispersal Floral Visitor Phenological Event Anther Dehiscence Prevailing Environmental Condition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. R. Shivanna
    • 1
  • Rajesh Tandon
    • 2
  1. 1.Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE)BengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

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