Fruit and Seed Biology

  • K. R. Shivanna
  • Rajesh Tandon


Except in apomictic species, seeds are the products of fertilization. Fertilized ovules develop into seeds and the ovary into the fruit. In a few species, accessory structures such as thalamus (apple) or pedicel (cashew nut) become the predominant parts of the fruit. The fruits are made up of the pericarp developed from the ovary wall and centrally located seed(s). The fruits are adapted to perform three functions: protection, nourishment and dispersal of their seeds. Extensive data are available on fruit and seed biology; some of the books and reviews include: Herrera (1985, 2002), Jordano (1992), Turner (2001), Fenner and Thompson (2005), Dennis et al. (2007), Cousens et al. (2008) and Schaefer and Ruxton (2011).


Seed Bank Seed Coat Moisture Level Seed Sample Fleshy Fruit 


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. R. Shivanna
    • 1
  • Rajesh Tandon
    • 2
  1. 1.Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE)BengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

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