Advertisement

Epidemiology and Risk Factors

  • Pradeep Jacob
Chapter

Abstract

Venous diseases of the lower limbs are common problems in clinical practice. The disease has a global prevalence and has been extensively studied and reported. But there is a paucity of literature pertaining to the prevalence of the disease in the Indian subcontinent.

Keywords

Positive Family History Varicose Vein Venous Hypertension Vein Wall Venous Ulcer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Rabe E, Pannier F. Epidemiology of chronic venous disorders. In: Gloviczki P, editor. Handbook of venous disorders: guidelines of the American Venous Forum. 3rd ed. London: Hodder Arnold; 2009. p. 105–10.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Evans CJ, Fowkes FFGR, Ruckley CV, Lee AJ. Prevalence of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency in men and women in the general population: Edinburgh Vein Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999;53:149–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dimakakos E, Syrigos K, Scliros E, Karaitianos I. Prevalence, risk and aggravating factors of chronic venous disease: an epidemiological survey of the general population of Greece. Phlebology. 2013;28(4):184–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carpentier PH, Maricq HR, Biro C, Poncot-Makinen CO, Franco A. Prevalance, risk factors and clinical patterns of chronic venous disorders of lower limb; a population based study in France. J Vasc Surg. 2004;40:650–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chiesa R, Marone EM, Limoni C, Volonte M, Schaefer E, Petrini O. Chronic venous insufficiency in Italy: the 24 cities cohort study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005;30(4):422–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Criqui MH, Jamosmos JM, Fronek AT, Denenberg JO, Langer RD, Bergan J, Golomb BA. Chronic venous disease in an ethnically diverse population. The San Diego Population study. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158:448–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Robertson L, Evans C, Fowkes FG. Epidemiology of chronic venous disease. Phlebology. 2008;23:103–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bradbury A, Evans C, Allan P, Lee A, Ruckley CV, Fowkes FG. What are the symptoms of varicose veins? Edinburgh vein study cross sectional population survey. BMJ. 1999;318:353–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brand FN, Dannenberg AL, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. The epidemiology of varicose veins: the Framingham study. Am J Prev Med. 1998;4:96–101.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rabe E, Pannier-Fischer F, Bromen K, Schuld K, Ponar C, Witten Horst M, et al. Bonner Venenstudie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Phlebologie – epidemiologische Untersuchung zur Frage derHäufigkeitundAusprägungvonchronischenVenenkrankheiteninder städtischen und ländlichen Wohnbevölkerung. Phlebologie. 2003;32:1–14.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jukkola TM, Makivaara LA, Luukkaala T, Hakama M, Laurikka J. The effects of parity, oral contraceptive use and hormone replacement therapy on the incidence of varicose veins. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;26:448–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beebe-Dimmer JL, Pfeifer J, Engle JS, Schottenfeld D. The epidemiology of chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. Ann Epidemiol. 2005;15:175–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pappas PJ, Lal BK, Padberg Jr FT, Zickler RW, Duran WN. Pathogenesis of varicose veins and cellular pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency. In: Gloviczki P, editor. Handbook of venous disorders: guidelines of the American Venous Forum. 3rd ed. London: Hodder Arnold; 2009. p. 56–69.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jacob AG, Driscoll DJ, Shaughnessy WJ, Stanson AW, Clay RP, Gloviczki P. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome: spectrum and management. Mayo Clin Proc. 1998;73:28–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gordeuk VR, Sergueeva AI, Miasnikova GY, Okhotin D, Voloshin Y, Choyke PL, et al. Congenital disorder of oxygen sensing: association of the homozygous Chuvash polycythaemia VHL mutation with thrombosis and vascular abnormalities but not tumors. Blood. 2004;103:3924–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Saiki S, Saiki K, Saiki M, Kitagawa Y, Umemori T, Murata K, et al. Varicose veins associated with CADASIL result from a novel mutation in the Notch3 gene. Neurology. 2006;67:337–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mellor RH, Brice G, Stanton AW, French J, Smith A, Jeffrey S, et al. Mutations in FOXC2 are strongly associated with primary valve failure in veins of the lower limb. Circulation. 2007;115:1912–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lim CS, Davies AH. Pathogenesis of primary varicose veins. Br J Surg. 2009;96:1231–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Corcos L, De Anna D, Dini M, Macchi C, Ferrari PA, Dini S. Proximal long saphenous vein valves in primary venous insufficiency. J Mal Vasc. 2000;25:27–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Van Cleef JF, Hugentobler JP, Desvaux P, Griton P, Cloarec M. Endoscopic study of reflux of the saphenous valve. J Mal Vasc. 1992;17(Suppl B):113–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Psaila JV, Melhuish J. Viscoelastic properties and collagen content of the long saphenous vein in normal and varicose veins. Br J Surg. 1989;76:37–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Raffetto JD, Khalil RA. Mechanisms of varicose vein formation: valve dysfunction and wall dilation. Phlebology. 2008;23:85–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Somers P, Knaapen M. The histopathology of varicose vein disease. Angiology. 2006;57:546–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hobeika MJ, Thompson RW, Muhs BE, Brooks PC, Gagne PJ. Matrix metalloproteinases in peripheral vascular disease. J Vasc Surg. 2007;45:849–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gandhi RH, Irizarry E, Nackman GB, Halpern VJ, Mulcare RJ, Tilson MD. Analysis of the connective tissue matrix and proteolytic activity of primary varicose veins. J Vasc Surg. 1993;18:814–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Venturi M, Bonavina L, Annoni F, Colombo L, Butera C, Peracchia A, et al. Biochemical assay of collagen and elastin in the normal and varicose vein wall. J Surg Res. 1996;60:245–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sansilvestri-Morel P, Rupin A, Badier-Commander C, Kern P, Fabiani JN, Verbeuren TJ, et al. Imbalance in the synthesis of collagen type I and collagen type III in smooth muscle cells derived from human varicose veins. J Vasc Res. 2001;38:560–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wali MA, Dewan M, Eid RA. Histopathological changes in the wall of varicose veins. Int Angiol. 2003;22:188–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lim CS, Shalhoub J, Gohel MS, Shepherd AC, Davies AH. Matrix metalloproteinases in vascular disease – a potential therapeutic target? Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2010;8(1):75–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Raffetto JD, Qiao X, Koledova VV, Khalil RA. Prolonged increase in vein wall tension increase matrix metalloproteinases and decrease constriction in rat vena cava: potential implications in varicose veins. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48:447–56.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Neglen P. Prevention and treatment of venous ulcers in primary chronic venous insufficiency. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52:15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.General SurgeryAmrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita LaneKochiIndia

Personalised recommendations